d and f block elements Revision Notes - IIT JEE/NEET Preparation | Nucleon

d and f block elements

  • Introduction
  • Four series of elements are formed by filling the 3d, 4d, 5d and 6d subshells of electrons. Collectively these
    comprise the d-block elements

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  • GENERAL TRENDS IN THE CHEMISTRY OF TRANSITION ELEMENTS
  • GENERAL TRENDS IN THE CHEMISTRY OF TRANSITION ELEMENTS

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  • Size of atoms and ions
  • The atomic radii of the transition metals lie in-between those of s- and p-block elements. The covalent radii
    of the elements decreases from left to right across a row in the transition series

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  • Melting and boiling points
  • The melting and boiling points of the transition series elements are generally very high. The
    melting points of the transition elements rise to a maximum and then fall as the atomic
    number increases. Manganese and technetium have abnormally low melting points

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  • Density
  • The atomic volumes of the transition elements are low compared with the elements of
    group 1 and 2. This is because the increased nuclear charge is poorly screened and so
    attracts all the electrons more strongly

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  • Ionisation energies or Ionisation enthalpies
  • Ionisation energies or Ionisation enthalpies

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  • Oxidation states
  • The transition metals exhibit a large number of oxidation states. With the exception of a few elements, most of
    these show variable oxidation states. These different oxidation states are related to the electronic configuration
    of their atoms

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  • Oxidation states 02
  • The transition metals exhibit a large number of oxidation states. With the exception of a few elements, most of
    these show variable oxidation states. These different oxidation states are related to the electronic configuration
    of their atoms

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  • Standard electrode potentials
  • The magnitude of ionization enthalpy gives the amount of energy required to remove electrons to
    form a particular oxidation state of the metal in a compound

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  • Electrode potentials
  • In addition to ionisation enthalpy, the other factors such as enthalpy of sublimation, hydration enthalpy, ionisation
    enthalpy etc. determine the stability of a particular oxidation state in solution. This can be explained in terms of
    their electrode potential values

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  • Electrode potentials 02
  • In addition to ionisation enthalpy, the other factors such as enthalpy of sublimation, hydration enthalpy, ionisation
    enthalpy etc. determine the stability of a particular oxidation state in solution. This can be explained in terms of
    their electrode potential values. The oxidation potential of a metal involves the following process

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  • Standard Electrode Potentials
  • Except copper and zinc, all other elements of first transition series show

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