It is the branch of physics which deals with the study of nucleus.
It is the nearest integer value of mass represented in a.m.u. (atomic mass unit).
It has been observed that there is a difference between expected mass
and actual mass of a nucleus
It is the minimum energy required to break the nucleus into its constituent
Variation of binding energy per nucleon with mass number
It was discovered by Henry Becquerel.
Calculation of kinetic energy of final products
Here also one can see that by momentum and energy conservation, we will get
They are like photons having rest mass = 0
As mass increases during conversion of proton to a neutron, hence it requires
It is a rare process which is found only in few nucleus. In this
process the nucleus captures one of the atomic electrons
from the K shell. A proton in the nucleus combines with this
electron and converts itself into a neutron. A neutrino is also
emitted in the process and is emitted from the nucleus.
Figure shows a plot of neutron number N versus proton number Z
for the nuclides found in nature. The solid line in the figure represents the stable nuclides. For
light stable nuclides, the neutron number is equal to the proton number so that ratio N/Z is
equal to 1. The ratio N/Z increases for the heavier nuclides and becomes about 1.6 for the
heaviest stable nuclides
Nuclear forces are basically attractive and are responsible for keeping the nucleons
bound in a nucleus in spite of repulsion between the positively charge protons
where N number of active nuclei
It is the time in which number of active nuclei becomes half.
Activity is defined as rate of radioactive decay of nuclei
NUCLEAR FISSION :
In nuclear fission heavy nuclei of A, above 200, break up into two or more fragments of
comparable masses. The most attractive bid, from a practical point of view, to achieve
NUCLEAR FUSION (THERMO NUCLEAR REACTION):