General Organic Chemistry (GOC_II) Revision Notes - IIT JEE/NEET Preparation | Nucleon

General Organic Chemistry (GOC_II)

  • Introduction
  • The electron displacement in an organic molecule may take place under the influence of an atom or a substituent
    group or in the presence of an appropriate attacking reagent

    Read more
  • Important points
  • If any group has more than one p bond in conjugation, then only one p bond will take part in delocalisation

    Read more
  • Electromeric effects
  • It is a temporary effect. The organic compound having a multiple bond ( double or triple bond)
    show this effect in the presence of an attacking reagent only

    Read more
  • Applications of electronic effects
  • Stability of reaction intermediates

    Read more
  • Reaction Intermediates
  • Reactive, shortlived, high energy, unstable species, those are formed in the course of organic
    reactions are called reaction intermediates

    Read more
  • Homolysis fission of Covalent Bonds
  • Homolysis fission of Covalent Bonds

    Read more
  • Heterolytic fission of Covalent Bonds
  • Heterolytic fission of Covalent Bonds

    Read more
  • Carbocation
  • Definition : A carbon intermediate which contain three bond pair & a positive charge on it is called carbocation.

    Read more
  • Carbanion
  • Definition : A carbon intermediate which contain three bond pair and a negative charge on it, is called carbanion

    Read more
  • Free Radicals
  • Homolysis of covalent bond results into free radical intermediates possessing the unpaired electrons

    Read more
  • Carbenes (Divalent Carbon intermediates)
  • Definition : There is a group of intermediates in which carbon forms only two bonds. These neutral divalent
    carbon species are called carbenes. Most carbenes are highly unstable that are capable of only fleeting existence.
    Soon after carbenes are formed, they usually react with another

    Read more
  • Nitrenes
  • Nitrenes

    Read more
  • Benzyne
  • The benzene ring has one extra C – C p bond in benzyne

    Read more
  • Keto-enol Tautomerisation
  • Protonation of the carbanion by water on the a-carbon gives back the carbonyl compound. Protonation on
    oxygen gives the enol. Notice that the enolate ion is the conjugate base of both the carbonyl compound and the
    enol.

    Read more
  • % Enol content in the carbonyl compounds
  • (a) For monocarbonyl % Enol is very less
    (b) Enol content increases with increase in the stability of enol by resonance, hyperconjugation, hydrogen
    bonding etc

    Read more
  • Racemisation and D-exchange
  • Exchange of a-hydrogen from deuterium as well as racemization at the a-carbon are catalyzed not only by
    bases but also by acids due to the phenomenon of tautomerisation

    Read more
  • Bases
  • An acid is a substance that can donate (or loose) a proton, and a base is a substance that can accept a proton.
    Let us consider, an example of this concept, the reaction that occurs when gaseous hydrogen chloride dissolves
    in water

    Read more
  • Aliphatic bases
  • Aliphatic bases

    Read more
  • Aromatic amines
  • Aniline is less basic than Ammonia because presence of lone pair of electron at nitrogen atom conjugate with p-
    electron of benzene ring and as a result electron density at nitrogen atom is decreased and hence the basic
    character is also decreased

    Read more
  • Acids
  • An acid is a substance that can donate (or loose) a proton, and a base is a substance that can accept a proton.
    Let us consider, an example of this concept, the reaction that occurs when gaseous hydrogen chloride dissolves
    in water :

    Read more
  • Relative acidity of hydrocarbons
  • Being most electronegative the sp hybridised carbon atom of ethyne polarizes its C–H bond to the greatest
    extent causing its H to be most positive therefore ethyne is most acidic hydrocarbon

    Read more
  • Acidity of carboxylic acids
  • Conjugate base of carboxylic acid exists as two equivalent cannonical structures (A) and (B). This ion is
    resonance stablised and resonance hybrid structure is (C).

    Read more
  • Comparison between two geometrical isomers
  • Comparison between two geometrical isomers

    Read more
  • Acidic strength of substituted benzoic acid
  • Formic acid is more acidic than benzoic acid while phenyl acetic acid is more acidic than acetic acid.

    Read more
  • Ortho effect
  • It is common observation that generally ortho substituted benzoic acids are more acidic as compared to their
    isomers and benzoic acid itself. This is called ortho effect (which is combined effect of steric hindrance,
    crowding & electronic effect) in benzoic acid. However exceptions are seen.

    Read more
  • Solvent Effect in bases
  • The trend is not regular in the aqueous state as evident by their pKb values given in Table.

    Read more
  • Reactions of Bases
  • Nature of aqueous solution : Amines combine with water to form alkyl ammonium hydroxides.
    This gives hydroxide ions in solution, thus the aqueous solution of amines is basic in nature.

    Read more
  • Reaction of Acids with salts
  • Reaction of Acids with salts

    Read more

Popular Video Created To Topic

General Organic Chemistry (GOC_II)

Online Live Session JEE/NEET

Online live session that help you visualize each concept making it easier to understand Efficient way to Clear your doubts from your place.

Know More

Our USB Program

Nucleon Provides best Classroom recording's of expert IITians faculties of kota in USB.

Know More

Coaching in KOTA

Ensure a Smart prep with adaptive learning for competitive exam (IIT JEE/NEET).

Know More
Share With Your Friends
whatsapp
--
Get Discount

Notice: Only variables should be passed by reference in /home/nucleon479/public_html/nucleoniitjeekota.com/include/footer-script.php on line 1