Chemistry in every day life Revision Notes - IIT JEE/NEET Preparation | Nucleon

Chemistry in every day life

  • Introduction
  • In general the drug may be defined as the substances used in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment or cure of
    disease in man or animals. Drug may be single chemical substance or a combination of two or more different
    substances. An ideal drug should satisfy the following requirements

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  • Classification of drugs
  • This classification is based on pharmacological effect of the drug. It is useful for doctors because it provides
    them the whole range of drugs available for treatment of particular type of health related problem for example,
    analgesics have pain killing effect antiseptics kill or stop the growth of micro organisms, tranquilizers
    reduces mental stress

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  • Drug Target Interaction
  • Macromolecules of biological origin perform various functions in the body for example proteins which perform the
    role of biological catalysts in the body are called enzymes, and those which are crucial to communication
    system in the body are called receptors.

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  • Receptors as Drug Targets
  • Receptors are proteins that are crucial to body’s communication process. Majority of these are
    embedded in cell membranes in such a way that their small part possessing active site project
    out of the surface of the membrane and open on the outside region of the cell membrane

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  • Types of chemical messengers
  • Hormones are a group of chemicals which are produced in the ductless (endocrine) glands. These enter the
    blood stream and travel to different parts of the body activating all the receptors which recognise them for
    message transfer

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  • Neurotransmitters
  • Nerves transfer message through neurotransmitters.
    There are small molecules such as acetyl choline, dopamine and serotonin.
    These bind to the receptor (target) for a very short time to transfer message to it and depart quickly unchanged
    after transfering the message

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  • Drugs According to their Action
  • *The chemicals which are used to reduce the acidity of the stomach are called antacids. Acidity is one of the
    common ailments associated with digestion.
    *Antacids are nature is basic. Their PH value is in the range of 7.0 to 8.0.
    *Omeprazole and lansoprazol are also marketed as antacid. They prevent the formation of acid in the stomach.
    Their strucutures are as follows

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  • Antihistamines or Antiallergic Drugs
  • *Antigens from environment and food create allergic reactions in our body. In this situtation Histamine a chemical
    released from certain cells in our body during allergic reaction, are produced.
    *Antihistamines are the drugs which diminish or abolish the effects of histamine.
    *Synthetic drugs Brompheniramine (Dimetapp), Chlorpheniramine and terphenadine (selane) act as antihistamine.
    *The antihistamine do not effect the secretion of acid in stomach because antiallergic and antacid drugs work on
    different receptors

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  • Neurologically Active Drugs
  • *The chemicals which are used to reduce mental tension, relieve anxiety and mental stress are called Tranquilizer.
    They act on central nervous system and are hypnotics.
    *Tranquilizers are effective in such mental disorder when ordinary hypnotics or sedatives fail. These are called as
    psychotherapeutic drugs

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  • Antimicrobials
  • *The chemicals which stop the growth or kill the micro organism such as bacteria, virus, fungi, moulds etc are
    called antimicrobials.
    * Antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectants are antimicrobial drugs

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  • Antimicrobials
  • *The chemicals which stop the growth or kill the micro organism such as bacteria, virus, fungi, moulds etc are
    called antimicrobials.
    * Antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectants are antimicrobial drugs

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  • Antifertility Drugs
  • “Chemcial substances which are used to check pregnancy in women are called anti-fertility drugs or
    birth control pills or oral contraceptives”.
    *It is known that estrogens control the menstrual cycle while progesterone suppresses ovulation.
    *Birth control pills essentially contain a mixture of synthetic estrogen and progesteron derivatives.
    Both of these compounds are hormones.

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  • Chemicals In Food
  • Chemicals are added to food for their preservation, enhancing their appeal and adding nutritive values in them
    Main catergories of food additives are as follows

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  • Artificial sweetening agents
  • *Natural sweeteners e.g. sucrose added to calorie intake and therefore many people prefer to use artificial
    sweeteners for example like Saccharine (It is ortho-sulphobenzimide which is insoluble in water but its sodium
    or potassium salts are soluble in water It is the first popular artificial sweetening agent used since 1879. It is
    about 550 times more sweet as cane sugar

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  • Food Preservatives
  • *The chemical which are used to stop undesirable change in food caused by microorganism and save
    them from spoiling are called preservatives. It reduces (stop the growth) and rate reactions occuring due
    to bacteria in food).

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  • Antioxidants
  • *The chemical substance which reduce the rate of reaction with oxygen in food, thus help in
    their preservation are called antioxidants.

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  • Cleansing Agents
  • *Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids e.g steric, oleic and palmitic acids. soap
    containg sodium salts are formed by heating fat (i.e. glyceryl ester of fatty acid) with aqueous sodium hydroxide
    solution.

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  • Detergents
  • The synthetic products , which like soaps remove dust and grease from a surface are called detergents, since
    they are not soap but work like a soap so they are also called as soapless soap.
    Detergents are mainly sodium salts of either sulphuric or sulphonic acids with long chain hydrocarbons. Their
    general formula is as follows

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  • Difference between soap and detergents
  • Although the action of soap and detergents is similar but there are following differences between
    them

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  • Rocket Propellant
  • *Rocket propellants consists of rocket engines powered by propellants. These are used both in space vehicles
    as well as in offensive weapons such as missiles. The propellants are chemical substances which on ignition
    provide thrust for the rocket to move forward. These substances are called rocket propellants

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  • Petroleum
  • The composition of crude petroleum varies with place of occurrence but essentially it is a mixture of
    alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, S, N and oxygen compounds and natural gas, etc

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  • Artificial Methods for Manufacture of Gasoline
  • (a) Cracking : It is a process in which high boiling fractions consisting of higher hydrocarbons are
    heated strongly to decompose them into lower hydrocarbons with low boiling points.
    The process of cracking involves the breaking of C–C and C–H bonds resulting in the formation of
    smaller molecules of various types

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  • Cosmetics
  • *Any such chemical substance which beautifies the human body by cleansing, altering or promoting the appearance.
    * According to their uses, different cosmetic items are classified into different categories.

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  • Dyes
  • 1. A dye is a coloured substance that can be applied in solution or dispersion to a substrate, giving it a
    coloured appearance.
    2. Every coloured substance is not a dye

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  • Bond Polarity
  • Generally in most of the bonds between two different elements, the bonding electrons are attracted
    more strongly towards one of the two nuclei. An unequally shared pair of bonding electrons is called a
    polar covalent bond

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  • Dipole moment
  • Due to difference in electronegativity polarity developes between two adjacent atoms in the
    molecule. The degree of polarity of a bond is called dipolemomentc

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  • Dipole moment
  • Due to difference in electronegativity polarity developes between two adjacent atoms in the
    molecule. The degree of polarity of a bond is called dipolemoment

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  • Intermolecular forces
  • Attractions between molecules are particularly important in solids and liquids. In these

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  • Dipole-Dipole interaction
  • Dipole-dipole interactions result from the approach of two polar molecules.

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  • Hydrogen Bonding
  • The hydrogen bond is an electrostatic attractive force between covalently bonded hydrogen atom of one molecule
    and an electronegative atom (such as F, O, N) of another molecule.

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  • Vander-Waal forces
  • Vander Waals forces or London dispersion force can be observed in nonpolar molecules such
    as carbon tetrachloride.
    A small temporary dipole moment is induced when one molecule approaches another molecule in
    which the electrons are slightly displaced from a symmetrical arrangement.

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  • Boiling Points
  • The boiling point (bp) of a compound is the temperature at which the compound’s vapor pressure
    equals the atmospheric pressure. In order for a compound to vaporize, the force that hold the
    molecules close to each other in the liquid must overcome. This means that the boiling point of a
    compound depends on the strength of the attractive forces between the individual molecules.

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  • Hydrogen Bonding
  • Alcohols have much higher boiling points than alkanes or ethers of comparable molecular weight because, in
    addition to van der Waals forces and the dipole–dipole interactions of the carbon–oxygen bond alcohols can
    form hydrogen bonds

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  • Dipole - Dipole interactions
  • Dipole–dipole interactions, are stronger than van der Waals forces but not as strong as ionic or covalent bonds.
    Ethers generally have higher boiling points than alkanes of comparable molecular weight because both van der
    Waals forces and dipole–dipole interactions must be overcome for an ether to boil

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  • Molecular weight
  • The boiling points for any homologous series of compounds increase as their molecular weights increase
    because of the increase in van der Waals forces. So the boiling points of a homlogous series of ethers,
    alkyl halides, alcohols, and amines increase with increasing molecular weight.

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  • Vander Waals forces
  • The molecules of an alkane are held together by these induced dipole-induced dipole interactions known as
    van der Waals forces or London forces. In order for an alkane to boil, these van der Waals forces must be
    overcome.

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  • Solubility
  • Intermolecular forces are of primary importance in explaining the solubilities of substances. Dissolution of a solid
    in a liquid is, in many respect, like the melting of a solid. The orderly crystal structure of the solid is destroyed,
    and result in the formation of the more disorderly arrangement of the molecules (or ions) in solution. In the
    process of dissolving, too, the molecules or ions must be separated from each other, and energy must be
    supplied for both changes. The energy required to overcome lattice energies and intermolecular or interionic
    attractions comes from the formation of new attractive forces between solute and solvent

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  • Melting Point
  • The temperature at which the thermal energy of the particles is great enough to overcome the
    intracrystalline forces that hold them in position is known as melting point

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  • Chemical separation of organic compounds
  • The organic compounds derived from natural sources or prepared in the laboratory are seldom pure. They are
    usually contaminated with other substances

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  • Chemical separation of organic compounds
  • Chemical separation of organic compounds

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