Basic Inorganic Nomenclature Revision Notes - IIT JEE/NEET Preparation | Nucleon

Basic Inorganic Nomenclature

  • Oxidation Number
  • 1 It is an imaginary or apparent charge developed over atom of an element when it goes from its elemental free
    state to combined state in molecules.
    2 It is calculated on basis of an arbitrary set of rules.

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  • Rules governing oxidation number
  • The following rules are helpful in calculating oxidation number of the elements in their different compounds. It is to
    be remembered that the basis of these rule is the electronegativity of the element

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  • Oxoacids or Oxyacids
  • The acids which contain hydrogen , oxygen and a metal or non-metal.
    In this case , more than one possibilities arise because of the presence of different number of oxygen atoms. An example
    of such an oxoacid series is as follows: HClO, HClO2, HClO3, HCIO4. All these contains same three elements but differ in
    the number of oxygen atoms present.

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  • Metal atoms with single positive charge
  • Rule : Names of positive ions end in-ium if the ion has only one oxidation

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  • Metal atoms with more than one possible charges
  • Rule : If the cation has variable valency (charge), charge is specified in roman numerals in round brackets immediately
    after the name of metal atom. For example , Sn2+ is written as tin (II) ion.

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  • Anions derived from hydracids
  • Rule : Names of negative ions from hydracids end in –ide.
    For example , Cl– (chloride) from HCl, and CN– (cyanide) from HCN. Following examples will
    give you a better insight in this nomenclature. It is also useful to remember them.

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  • Anions derived from oxyacids
  • Anion derived from an oxyacid by removal of one or more H+ ions is termed as oxyanion.
    Rule : If the oxyacid is – ic acid, suffix - ate is used with oxy-anion.

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  • Anions containing replacable hydrogen ions
  • Polyprotic acid. Any acid containing more than one replacable hydrogens is said to be a polyprotic acid.

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  • Nomenclature of the elements with atomic number > 100 (IUPAC)
  • 1 These symbols are based on first letter of numbers from 0 to 9. The names of these number are derived
    from Greek and Latin languages.
    2 The Latin words for various digits of the atomic number are written together in the order of which makes the
    atomic number and suffix ‘ium’ is added at the end. In case of bi and tri one ‘i’ is omitted.

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