Subject  PCM  Medium  

Faculty  NV Sir,VKP Sir,SSI Sir,Renu Mam  Status  AVAILABLE 
Category  COMPLETE COURSE  Lecture  565 
Target  XI XII XIII  Books  QUESTION BANK ATTACHED 
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Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Introduction Different concentration terms interconversion, colligative properties, van’t hoff factor calculation, osmotic pressure. 
33 Minutes 
02  Osmosis , Osmotic pressure (different cases)  47 Minutes 
03  Numericals on osmotic pressure  46 Minutes 
04  Vapour pressure, relative lowering of vapour pressure,  41 Minutes 
05  Numericals on RLVP, Ostwald walker method  40 Minutes 
06  Elevation in boiling point, calculation of Kb (molal elevation boiling point constant) . Depression in freezing point, Calculation of Kf,  54 Minutes 
07  Numericals on elevation in boiling point and depression in freezing point  36 Minutes 
08  Thermodynamic explanation of 𝝙Tb & 𝝙Tf  6 Minutes 
09  Raoult’s law when two volatile liquids are mixed  49 Minutes 
10  Ideal and nonideal solution  34 Minutes 
11  Azeotropes, mixture of two immiscible liquids, solubility of gas in liquid, henry law  58 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Types of solid, Crystal, Amorphous, unit cell, 2D, 3D, space,lattice.  42 Minutes 
02  Primitive, body centred, face centered contribution of atoms in cubic unit cell. Packing fraction of square packing and hexagonal packing  47 Minutes 
03  Coordination Number, packing fraction, density of solid.,Simple cubic, BCC, FCC, CCP  44 Minutes 
04  Closed packing in 3D HCP packing, Linear void, Triangular void, Tetrahedral void, octahedral void, Cubical void Types of void in FCC 
57 Minutes 
05  Voids in FCC,Different radius ratio for ionic compounds.  47 Minutes 
06  Calculation of nearest, next nearest and next to next nearest atoms in SC, BCC, FCC.  29 Minutes 
07  Structure of NaCl type, Zns type, CaF2 type, Na2O type, CSCl type, Diamond  50 Minutes 
08  Spinal structure, perovskite corundum structure, packing fraction of NaCl, Defect In crystal, Schottky, Frenkel, Interstitial  39 Minutes 
09  Non stoichiometric defect, cation excess defect cation deficiency defect, Paramagnetic, Diamagnetic Ferromagnetic, Ferrimagnetic, Antiferromagnetic compound  31 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Fast reaction , slow reaction, moderate reaction, average rate of reaction, instantaneous rate of reaction, relation of rate of reaction between various reagents , order  57 Minutes 
02  Order law, zero order reaction  35 Minutes 
03  First order reaction  28 Minutes 
04  Half life period for first order reaction  27 Minutes 
05  Average life period for first order, generation time , first order bacterial growth, second order reaction  24 Minutes 
06  nth order reaction, pseudo first order reaction  35 Minutes 
07  Rate of reaction of two or reactant are taken, calculation of order by half life method  32 Minutes 
08  Initial rate method , integrated rate law, ostwald isolation method to determine order  40 Minutes 
09  Monitoring of first order reaction using pressure measurement  30 Minutes 
10  Monitoring of first order reaction using titration and optical rotation  42 Minutes 
11  Arrhenius transition state theory  29 Minutes 
12  Arrhenius equation  32 Minutes 
13  Effect of catalyst on rate constant, temperature coefficient for reaction  39 Minutes 
14  Simple and complex reaction, molecularity, rate determining step RDS  29 Minutes 
15  Determination of rate if RDS is given , steady state approximation,complexity in first order reaction, parallel first order reactions  48 Minutes 
16  Reversible first order reaction  29 Minutes 
17  Consecutive first order reaction  19 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Cause of radioactivity belt of stability , comparison between alpha particle, beta particle and gamma rays  15 Minutes 
02  Group displacement law soddy fajan rule,, k– electron capture ,first order decay.  28 Minutes 
03  Radioactive decay  28 Minutes 
04  Carbon dating, Age of rock using U & Pb,Age of rock using U & He  53 Minutes 
05  Mass defect ,Binding energy, Binding energy per nucleon. Nuclear fission and fusion.  51 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Adsorption, Adsorbate, Adsorbent, Thermodynamics of Adsorption, Adsorption v/s Absorption, Physical Adsorption.  47 Minutes 
02  Freundlich & Langmuir isotherm, catalytic action of Homogeneous catalyst & Heterogeneous catalyst, Positive & negative catalyst, Homogeneous catalyst, Promoters, Catalytic poison, zeolites, enzyme catalyst, Types of solution, Dispersed phase & Dispersion medium.  48 Minutes 
03  Types of colloidal solution, Lyophobic, Lyophilic, macromolecular, micromolecular, Associated colloid/ micelle, cleansing action of soap, Bredig’s arc method,Peptization  43 Minutes 
04  Chemical method to prepare colloidal solution, Tyndall effect, Brownian motion, Electrophoresis, coagulation, protection of colloid.  53 Minutes 
05  Gold number, Helmholtz double layer theory ,emulsion.  22 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Electrochemical cell, Oxidation half cell, Reduction half cell, Galvanic cell  1 hr 05 Minutes 
02  Salt bridge, Daniel cell net cell reaction reaction Quotient cell representation relation between DG & E properties of DG & E,nernst equation  44 Minutes 
03  Spontaneity of reaction in cell, nernst equation cell at equilibrium, concentration cell. Hydrogen electrode and standard hydrogen electrode  44 Minutes 
045  Metal + insoluble salt + soluble anion type half cell Eg. Ag + AgCl + Cl– 
1 hr 15 Minutes 
05  Calomel electrode, electrochemical series, thermodynamics for electrochemical cell, 𝝙G, 𝝙H, 𝝙S  59 Minutes 
06  Electrolysis & electrolytic cell, electrolysis of nacl, nabr, H2SO4,H2O, first law of electrolysis Faraday law  1 hr 11 Minutes 
07  Examples of first law of faraday, second law of faraday  51 Minutes 
08  Primary cell ,leclanche cell, secondary cell, lead storage battery , NiCd cell , H2O2 fuel cell, electrolytic conduction  50 Minutes 
09  Molar conductivity, equivalent conductivity , relation between molar cond. And equv. Cond., kohlrausch law, calculation of molar cond using wheatstone bridge , relation between molar cond. And concentration for weak electrolyte and strong electrolyte ,huckel onsager equation  54 Minutes 
10  Ionic mobility, conductometric titration for strong acid V/s strong base , strong acid v/s weak base and other examples  51 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Types of ore, Methods of metallurgy, crushing grinding, concentration, gravity separation, magnetic separation, froth floatation.  38 Minutes 
02  Leaching, calcination, roasting, flux, slag, reduction with carbon, carbon monoxide, self reduction. Electrolytic reduction is fused / aqueous solution.  40 Minutes 
03  Reduction with Al, Mg, H2, Thermal decomposition, metal displacement reduction, metallurgy of Aq & Au, Macarthur forrest cyanide method, copper extraction.  38 Minutes 
04  Extraction of Pb, Zn, Hg, Sn, Fe, Al, bayer methode, Hall, serpeck, HallHeroult method.  42 Minutes 
05  Extraction of Mg, Dow process, Extraction of sodium purification method Liquidation, Distillation Vapour phase refining, poling process, Mond process, Van Arkel method, Electrolytic refining.  46 Minutes 
06 
Parting with Cl2, concentrated H2So4, Parke process, Thermodynamic of metallurgy Ellingham diagram.

50 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Simple salt, mixed salt, double salt, coordination compound, central atom, ligand, coordination number, oxidation number :  30 Minutes 
02  Denticity, flexidentate, Ambidentate liquid  24 Minutes 
03  Coordination polyhedron, Naming of central atom, cationic ligand, neutral ligand, anionic ligand  27 Minutes 
04  Naming of anionic ligand , rules for naming of complex salt, formula of complex , naming of complex having bridging ligand  1 hr 02 Minutes 
05  Name of complex containing bridging ligand, reaction with AgNO3, reaction with BaCl2 electrical conductivity  32 Minutes 
06  Reaction with conc. H2SO4, Werner’s theory, Sidgwick EAN rule.  23 Minutes 
07  Valence bond Theory (VBT)  40 Minutes 
08  Crystal field theory for octahedral complex.  37 Minutes 
09  Crystal field theory (octahedral complex Examples)  51 Minutes 
10  Crystal field theory (octahedral complex Examples), CFT for square planar complex, CFT for tetrahedral complex, structural isomerism, ionisation, hydrate, ligand , linkage, coordination isomerism  1 hr 05 Minutes 
11  Examples of tetrahedral complex, factors affecting crystal field splitting energy  54 Minutes 
12  Stereoisomerism, geometrical & optical isomerism  57 Minutes 
13  Optical isomerism in octahedral complex & factors affecting splitting  45 Minutes 
14  Properties of coordination compound stability, magnetic nature, colour, dd transition.  53 Minutes 
15  Charge transfer in brown ring, sodium nitroprusside, back bonding in metal carbonyl, Delta bond, synergic bonding, bonded organometallic compound,ferrocene, zeise salt.  1 hr 01 Minute 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Physical properties of nitrogen family (atomic radius, Ionisation energy, Electronegativity, Oxidation state), Chemical properties (Hydride, Oxide, Halide)  46 Minutes 
02  Compounds of Nitrogen, N2, NH3, N2O, NO 
34 Minutes 
03  Compounds of Nitrogen N2O3, N2O4, N2O5, HNO2, HNO3 allotropes of phosphorus (white, red, black) 
31 Minutes 
04  Compounds of phosphorus, PH3, P4O6, P4O10, PCl3, PCl5  30 Minutes 
05  Physical properties of oxygen family (atomic radius, Ionisation energy, Electronegativity, Oxidation state), Chemical properties (Hydride, Oxide, Halide), dioxygen, types of oxide(acidic,basic,neutral,amphoteric,mixed oxide), ozone ,hydrogen peroxide  34 Minutes 
06  Allotropes of sulphur, H2S, SO2, SO3, Hypo solution Na2S2O3  20 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Properties of Halogen family members, Atomic radius,Ionisation,enthalpy,Electronegativity, Bond energy,Anomalous behaviour of fluorine  27 Minutes 
02  Properties of F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 Haloger acid HCl, HBr, HI  28 Minutes 
03  Properties of HF, CaOCl2, HOCl, HClO2, HClO3. Bleaching powder CaOCl2  32 Minutes 
04  HClO4, Interhalogen Compounds & their Hydrolysis, Pseudo halide, Pseudo Halogen Noble gas 
22 Minutes 
05  Properties (atomic radius, Mp, b.p. ionisation energy) of noble gas family Reaction with xenon with F2 & H2, addition compound, Hydrolysis reaction 
21 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Transition metal, general configuration atomic radius, ionization energy.  33 Minutes 
02  Density, melting point, oxidation state, standard electrode potential, colour, magnetic properties, nature of oxide, interstitial compound, catalytic properties, alloy formation  33 Minutes 
03  Potassium dichromate, Potassium permanganate ,AgBr photography.  39 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Preliminary test, Dry Heating test, Flame test, Borax bead test, Charcoal cavity test. Cobalt nitrate test.  35 Minutes 
02  Group A anion, radial  25 Minutes 
03  ,s^{2}  20 Minutes 
04  starch / iodide test, Brown ring test, CH_{3} COO^{}  25 Minutes 
05  ,Iodometry test  25 Minutes 
06  Cl^{} , F^{} , Br^{} , I^{}  59 Minutes 
07  Nitrate,oxalate, borate ion  36 Minutes 
08  Group B anion Sulphate,phosphate,permanganate,chromate anion  26 Minutes 
09  Cation (basic radical) Zero group^{} Ist group^{} Pb^{+2}  15 Minutes 
10  Ist group  Ag^{+} , Hg^{+2}  29 Minutes 
11  II A group  IIA & IIB IIA  Cu^{+2} , Bi^{+3} , Pb^{+2} , Cd^{+2} , Hg^{+2}  40 Minutes 
12  III group  Al^{+3} , Fe^{+3} , Cr^{+3} IV group  Mn^{+2}  30 Minutes 
13  V group  Ba^{+2} , Sr^{+2} , Ca^{+2} VI group  Mg^{+2}  26 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Carbocations C^{+}, Hybridisation of carbocations , Stability of carbocations , Rearrangement of carbocations , Type of shifts , Migratory aptitude  36 Minutes 
02  Migratory aptitude of aromatic group , Rearrangement in cyclic carbocations , Ring expansion (RE), Ring contracting (RC) , Cyclopropyl methyl carbocations (CPM–C^{+}), Stability order of carbocations , Some extra ordinary stable carbocations, CPM carbocation , Aromatic carbocations  42 Minutes 
03  Rearrangement of carbocation, Reaction mechanism , Solvents , Polar protic solvents (PPS), Polar aprotic solvents (PAs) , Reagents , Nucleophiles, Nu, Electrophilic E^{+}  35 Minutes 
04  Electrophiles, E^{+}, Nucleophiles, Nu, Nucleophilicity , Experimental order of Nu, Strong Nu with weak basic character , Strong Nu with strong basic character, Weak Nu with weak basic character , Solvation of Nu  47 Minutes 
05  Leaving group (l.g.), Leaving group ability , Unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction of first order (for R–X) i.e SN1 of R–X , Kinetics of SN1, Stereo of SN1, PE diagram of SN1, SN1 with rearrangement in C^{+}, Rate of SN1 reaction  36 Minutes 
06  SN^{1} or R–X, Solvolysis reaction , Factors affecting the rate of SN^{1} reactions , SN^{1} of alcohol R–OH  50 Minutes 
07  SN^{1} of R–OH, Lucas reaction , SN^{1} of ethers , Hydrolysis of ethers , SN^{2} reaction of (R–X), Kinetics of SN^{2} reaction , Stereochemistry of SN^{2} Rxn , PEdiagram of SN^{2} Rxn  43 Minutes 
08  Walden's experiment , Walden Inversion , Factors affecting the rate of SN^{2} Rxn , Halogen exchange reaction , Finkelstien reaction , Swart's reaction , SN^{2} Rxn of alcohol (R–OH), SN^{i} reaction of alcohol with SOCl_{2}  48 Minutes 
09  SN^{2} of ether , Reaction of epoxides , Williamson's ether synthesis  29 Minutes 
10  Intramolecular SN^{2} reactions , Neighbouring group participation (NGP) , Comparison between SN^{1 }and SN^{2} , SN^{1} Vs SN^{2}  41 Minutes 
11  Elimination Reaction , E^{1} elimination (of R–X), Saytzeff's rule , Regioselectivity , E^{1} of Alcohols, Acid catalysed dehydroation of alcohol, Dienone Phenol rearrangement , Pinacol  Pinacolone rearrangement , Semipinacol Pinacolone rearrangement  51 Minutes 
12  E^{2} Rxn of (R–X), Stereoselectivity and sterospecificity , Reagents of E^{–2} Reaction , Order of Rate of E^{–2}, Major Hofmann Alkene  37 Minutes 
13  Summary of SN^{1}/ SN^{2}/E^{1}/E^{2}, Stereo selectivity of E–2 reaction , E^{1}CB reaction , Cases when Hofmann Alkene is the major product  40 Minutes 
14  Tetraalkyl ammonium hydroxide , E–2 Rxn, Didehalogenation , Stereoselectivity , Isotope effect (K_{H}/K_{D})  24 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Organometallic compounds , Preparation of G.R.  12 Minutes 
02  Preparation of GR, Solvents of GR, Reaction of GR, Acidbase reaction of GR, Zerewitinoff's active hydrogen determination  33 Minutes 
03  Nucleophilic addition reaction of GR, SN2 Th reaction of GR  30 Minutes 
04  Unstable GR, Mono GR is not possible with dihalide , Reaction of GR with CO2, Reaction of GR with O2, Reaction of GR with RCN, Digrignard reagent , Reactions of digrignard reagent  40 Minutes 
05  Attack of GR on weak bond, 1,2addtion & 1,4additon , Reaction of GR with metal halides , REDUCTION , Definition of reduction , Table of reducing agents , Catalytic hydrogenation  42 Minutes 
06  Catalylic hydrogenation , Stereoselectivity ,) Partial hydrogenation , Lindlar's catalyst , P2 catalyst (Nickle Boride), Birch reduction  44 Minutes 
07  Hydroboration Reduction (HBR), Transfer Hydrogenation, Clemmensen reduction , WolfKishner reduction, Lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH_{4})  54 Minutes 
08  Sodiumboro hydride (NaBH4) (SBH), Triphenyltin hydride Ph3SnH (TPH), DiBAlH Diisobutyl Aluminium hydride , Red –P + HI, Mozingo reduction , MPV reduction , Oppeneaus Oxidation , BauvealtBlanc reduction , ALKANES, Free Radicals , Formation of free radicals , F.R. Catalyst/ Initiators / Promotors , F.R. Inhibitors/ Scavangers/Poisons , Stability of free radicals , Reactions of free radicals , Combination Reactions , Disproportionation reaction  53 Minutes 
09  Reactions of Free radicals , Stability of free radicals , Preparation of Alkanes , Wurtz Reaction (WR), WurtzFitting reaction , Fitting reaction , Frankland reaction , Kolbe's Electrolytic synthesis (KES), CoreyHouse Reaction  41 Minutes 
10  Corey House reaction, Decarboxylation , Decarboxylation by soda lime , Decarboxylation by heating  40 Minutes 
11  Properties of Alkanes , Chemical properties of Alkanes , Free Radical substitution reaction , PEdiagrams , Reactivity order , Conditions of halogenation  25 Minutes 
12  reactivity and selectivity , Percentage yield , Quantum yield , Isomerisation reaction of alkanes , Aromatisation reaction of alkanes , Petroleum , Physical Properties of alkanes  39 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Alkenes , Preparation of Alkene , Pyrolysis of ester , Pyrolysis of xanthates (Chaugave reaction ) , Cope reaction , Didehalogenations  37 Minutes 
02  Chemical reactions of Alkenes , Electrophilic addition reaction (AE Rxn), Classical carbocation mechanism , NonClassical carbocation mechanism , Markowni Koff's rule , Addition of H–X, Antimarkowni Koff's rule  52 Minutes 
03  Addition of H2O on Alkenes , Acidcatalysed hydration of Alkenes , Oxymercuration Demercuration reaction (OM/DM), Hydroboration oxidation (HBO), Alkoxymercuration Demercuration , Addition of X_{2} on Alkenes  47 Minutes 
04  Addition of HOX on alkenes , Stereoselectivity , Order of rate of addition of X_{2} on alkene , Chemical reaction of Alkynes , Addition of HX on alkynes , Addition of H_{2}O on alkynes , Hydration of alkyne with dil H_{2}SO_{4} and HgSO_{4}, Hydroboration – Oxidation  48 Minutes 
05  Addition of HOX on alkynes , Preparation of alkynes , Isomerisation  24 Minutes 
06  Isomerisation mechanism , Reaction of terminal alkynes , Dienes , Conjugated diene , Addition NOCl on alkene , Allylic substitution , NBS Nbromosuccinimide  35 Minutes 
07  Reaction of NBS, MnO2 Oxidising agent , Carbenes , Sources of carbenes , Types of carbenes  21 Minutes 
08  Reaction of carbene , ReimmerTiemann reaction , Carbyl amine reaction , OXIDATION , definition of oxidation , Oxidation of alkenes and alkynes , Ozonolysis of Alkenes and alkynes , Oxidation of Ketone , Perhydroxylation of Alkenes (Formation of diols), Baiyer reaction – Baeyer's reagent , Osmium tetraoxide (OsO_{4}), Epoxidation by per acid  49 Minutes 
09  Oxidationstrong oxidising agent , Potassium dichromate K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}/H_{2}SO_{4}, Alkaline KMnO_{4}/ OH^{}, H_{2}CrO_{4} or CrO_{3} + H_{2}O, Table of oxidising agents , Oxidation of alcohols , Mild oxidising agents , Oxidation of periodic acid HIO_{4}, Oxidation of aldehydes , Oxidation with NBS, Tollen's reagent , Fehling's Reagent , Benedict's solution , Schiff's reagent  38 Minutes 
10  Oxidation of seleniumdioxide SeO_{2}, SideChain oxidation  13 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Aromaticity , Benzenoids and NonBenzenoids , NMRdefinition of Aromaticity , Anti Aromaticity , Polycyclic aromatic compound , Azulenes , Reaction of AgNO_{3} and Nametal , (n)Annulenes , Peripheral aromaticity  44 Minutes 
02  Electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction , Halogenation of Benzene , BaltzSchiemann reaction , Nitration of benzene , Kinetic Isotope effect , Sulphonation of benzene , FriedelCraft reaction (F.C. Rxn), F.C. Alkylation  49 Minutes 
03  RingClosure at C1 and C–2, Dehydrogenation , Limitations of F.C. reaction , Friedel Craft Acylation , Ring closure , Directive influence or Directive effect , Table of activating and deactivating groups  44 Minutes 
04  Orthopara ratio , Direction effect on disubstituted benzene , Directive influence in monosubstituted benzene , Directive influence in naphthalene , Directive influence in diphenyl , Directive influence in Anthracene and phenanthrene, Directive influence in pyridine & pyrrole , SN2 Ar reaction , PHENOL, Preparation of phenol  37 Minutes 
05  Preparation of phenol from acid hydrolysis of cumene , Chemical reaction of phenol , Halogenation of phenol , Protection of –OH group, Nitration of Phenol , Sulphonation of Phenol, ReimerTiemann Reaction , ReimerTiemann formylation , ReimerTiemann carboxylation , Comparison of ReimerTiemann and carbyl amine reactions , KolbeSchmidt reaction , Some medicinally important compounds , Aspirine, Salol, Oil of winter green  39 Minutes 
06  Nitrosation of phenol , Use of phenol as nucleophile, ANILINE, Preparation of aniline from reduction of nitrobenzene , Selective reduction , Chemical reactions of aniline , Halogenation of Aniline , Nitration of Aniline, Sulphonation of Aniline  26 Minutes 
07  Fries rearrangment reaction in Phenol , Claisen rearrangement , Diazotisation of Aniline , Reaction of Benzene diazonium chloride (BDC) , Sandmeyer reaction , Baltzscheimann reaction , Experimental evidence of formation of phenyl cation , Amination – Deamination  43 Minutes 
08  AMINES, Preparation of Amines , Hofmann Bromamide reaction , Hofmann methylation , Gabriel phthalimide reaction , Coupling reaction of BDC  32 Minutes 
09  Test of Amines ,Isocyanide Test of 1º Amine , Test with nitrous acid HNO2, CYANIDES and ISOCYANIDES , Preparation of cyanides and isocyamide , Hydrolysis of cyanides and isocyanides , IPSOSubstitution  23 Minutes 
10  Basic Strength, Definition of bases , Scales of basic strength , Organic Nitrogenous bases  12 Minutes 
11  Basic strength of Aliphatic amines , Basic strength of Aromatic amines , SH of H_{2}O, SIR effect on Aromatic amines , Basic strength of pyridine and pyarole  43 Minutes 
12  Amidinebasic strength , Guanidine basic strength , K_{b} order , Proton sponges , Site of protonation , Feasibility of reaction  31 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Preparation of aldehydes & Ketones , Dehydrogenation , Hydrolysis of gem. dihalide , From dry distillation of Col. salt of fatty acid , From acid chloride (Rossenmund's) , Formylation of benzene (Gattermann Koch Ald. Synthesis) , Chemical reaction of carbonyl compound , Nucleophilic addition reaction , Addition of H_{2}O (Formation of hydrates)  41 Minutes 
02  Addition of R–OH (Formation acetal/Ketal), Addition of G.R., Addition of HCN (Formation of cyanohydrin), Addition of NH_{3}, Addition of Ammonia derivative  35 Minutes 
03  Addition of NaHSO_{3} (Sodium bisulphite) , Backmann rearrrangment , Cyclic Ketone  29 Minutes 
04  Condensation reaction , Aldol condensation reaction , Cross Aldol , Intramolecular Aldol reaction  40 Minutes 
05  Perkin condensation reaction , Classen Ester condenstion , CrossClaisen , Intramolecular claisen (Dieckmann's reaction ) , knoevenagel reaction  22 Minutes 
06  Reformatsky reaction , Favorskii reaction , Cannizaro reaction  23 Minutes 
07  Cross Aldol , Cross Cannizaro , Intramolecular cannizaro , Tischenko reaction , AlphaHalogenation , Haloform reaction , Iodoform test  44 Minutes 
08  Baeyer  Villiger Oxidation , Benzil  Benzilic acid Rearrangement , Dexchange reaction , Witting reaction , Benzoin condensation  33 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Carboxylic acid preparation , ArndtEistert reaction (Homologation of acid), Chemical reactions of carboxylic acids , Hunsdiecker reaction  18 Minutes 
02  Decarboxylication reaction , Decarboxylation of acids by soda lime (SL), Decarboxylation by heating , HellVolhardZelinsky (HVZ) reaction , Acid derivatives , Preparation of acid derivatives , SN^{2 Th} reaction , Esters preparation , TypeI mechanism of esterification, TypeII mechanism of esterification  44 Minutes 
03  Examples of esterification, Hydrolysis of ester , Acid hydrolysis of ester and saponification , Acid amide , Hofmann Bromamide reaction , Curtius reaction , Schmidt reaction , Lossen reaction  28 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Carbohydrates , definition , Classification of carbohydrates , Based on number of units , Based on water solubility , Based on reducing properties  18 Minutes 
02  Monosaccharides  Aldoses and Ketoses, D/Lconfiguration (Relative configuration) , Glucose , Cyclic hemiacetal structure of glucose , ANOMERS , EPIMERS , Haworth structure of glucose glucopyranose structure, Formation of methylOglucoside , Mutarotation, FRUTOSE , cyclic hemiacetal structure of fructose , Haworth structure of fructose Fructofuranose structure  47 Minutes 
03  SUCROSE, Inversion of sugar , Glycosidic linkage , Maltose ,Lactose , Starch , Amylose and amylopectin , Cellulose , Reaction of carbohydrates , Osazone formation of glucose and fructose  45 Minutes 
04  Amino acids , Types of AlphaAmino acids (AA), Neutral AlphaAA, Acidic AlphaAA, Basic AlphaAA, Zwitter ion , Isoelectric point (pI), Calculation of pI value  21 Minutes 
05  Peptides , Dipeptides , Peptide link, Polypeptides , Protein , Examples of Amino acids  18 Minutes 
06  Polymerisation , Classification of polymer , Based on source , Base on Intermolecular force of attraction , Elastromers , Fibres , Thermoplastics, Thermosettings , Polyethylene , Nylon6, Nylon6,6, Natural Rubber , Synthetic Rubber Neoprene , BunaS, BunaN , Dacron , Low density polyethylene (LDPE)  33 Minutes 
07  High density polyethylene (HDPE) , Polypropylene , Poly isobutylene , Poly vinyl chloride (PVC), Poly tetrafluoro ethylene (PTFEW Tefflon) , Poly acrylonitrile (PAN or orlon), Poly styrene , Poly methyl methanacrylate (PMMA or Lucite) or (Plexiglas or prespex), Natural Rubber Polyisoprene , Guttapercha, Vinylidene chloride Vinyl chloride polymer , LexanPoly carbonate , Glyptal , Bakelite (or phenol formaldehyde Resin), Melamine formaldehyde (Melmac) , Polyurethane  33 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  law of rectilinear propagation of light, Law of independence of light rays, Law of reversibility, Laws of reflections, types of reflection, regular and diffused reflection, Plane mirror, definition of Object and Image, virtual and real Object/Image. Image formation by plane mirror, Important points about Image formation by plane mirror, motion of object and its Image  52 Minutes 
02  Problems on motion of object and image in 3D, Rotation of Mirror and Incident ray  46 Minutes 
03  Problems , Images formed by two mutually inclined mirrors, field of view  50 Minutes 
04  Problems, Angle of deviation due to reflection  16 Minutes 
05  Curved mirrors, some definitions (terms) related with curved mirrors. Paraxial rays, focal plane.  42 Minutes 
06  sign conventions, Mirror formula, magnifications  28 Minutes 
07  ray diagram  28 Minutes 
08  problems, some examples, multiple reflections  34 Minutes 
09  motion of object and image, lateral magnifications  46 Minutes 
10  1/v versus 1/u graphs, UV graphs, Newton’s mirror formula  59 Minutes 
11  Refraction, Refractive index, Snell’s laws, some important points to remember, refraction through plane surface and parallel slabs.  46 Minutes 
12  Image formation due to refraction through plane surface, actual depth and apparent depth, problems  41 Minutes 
13  Lateral shift, Normal shift, combination of mirror and slabs  42 Minutes 
14  critical angle, total internal reflection, circle of illuminance, deviation due to refraction through plane surface  40 Minutes 
15  Prsim, Prism angle, angle of emergence, deviation by prism, condition for no emergence, angle of deviation by prism in terms of angle of incidence and angle of emergence. Condition for minimum deviation, minimum deviation  41 Minutes 
16  maximum deviation,thin prisms, deviation by thin prism  23 Minutes 
17  Cauchy’s equation, dispersion, mean deviation, angular dispersion, Dispersive power of Prism, combination of Prisms, Achromatic combination ,combination for direct vision  54 Minutes 
18  Refraction through curved surface, formula relating “v” and “u”,  27 Minutes 
19  Problems lateral and longitudinal magnification, motion of object and image.  27 Minutes 
20  Thin lenses, classification of thin lenses, Lens maker’s formula and Lens formula  35 Minutes 
21  lateral and longitudinal magnification, Ray diagrams,  28 Minutes 
22  sign convention, Image formation, Problems,  45 Minutes 
23  problems , some important points to remember  28 Minutes 
24  motion of Object and image, , 1/v versus 1/u graphs, UV graphs  39 Minutes 
25  power of lens, combination of lenses in contact. Combination of two lenses separated by distance “d”, combination of lenses and mirror in contact, focal length when one face of a thin lens is silvered  56 Minutes 
26  Displacement method to find the focal length of a lens,  15 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Introduction to charge, properties of charge  43 Minutes 
02  Coulombs law, permittivity, relative permittivity, principal of superposition  52 Minutes 
03  Electric field and its strength due to a point charge , due to circular arc , due to circular ring  35 Minutes 
04  Electric field due to circular disc, infinite layer of charge , due to large conducting and non conducting sheets  43 Minutes 
05  Electric field due to straight conductor and related problems  40 Minutes 
06  Electric field due to non conducting solid sphere , hollow sphere and related problems  43 Minutes 
07  Electric field inside cavity and electrostatic pressure.  25 Minutes 
08  Electric potential, Electric potential due to a point charge , due to circular arc , due to circular ring , due to circular disc  31 Minutes 
09  Relation between electric field and electric potentials , Electric field due to Non conducting solid sphere and hollow sphere  48 Minutes 
10  potential difference due to infinite layer of charge and infinitely long line charge, Equipotential surface  34 Minutes 
11  Electric potential energy, potential energy of two point charge system , potential energy of point charge system, methods to find the potential energy of point charge system  42 Minutes 
12  self energy of hollow sphere, self energy of solid sphere, energy density , Potential energy of interaction  41 Minutes 
13  Problems on self energy and interaction energy , Electric line of forces (ELOF), properties of ELOF  17 Minutes 
14  Electric flux, solid angle and use of solid angle to find the electric flux  58 Minutes 
15  Gauss theorem, uses of Gauss theorem to find electric field due to hollow sphere  28 Minutes 
16  Electric field due to solid sphere/long line charge/solid cylindrical charged body/hollow cylindrical charged body by using gauss theorem  31 Minutes 
17  Electric dipole, Electric dipole moment, Electric field due to dipole on axial point/equatorial line/at general point  32 Minutes 
18  Electric potential due to dipole on axial point/equatorial line/at general point, Force and Torque experienced by a dipole in external uniform electric field, potential energy of dipole in external uniform electric field, force on dipole in non uniform electric field, force between two dipoles  52 Minutes 
19  Conductor, Earthing of a conductor , electrostatic shielding  28 Minutes 
20  charge distribution on inner and outer surface of concentric conducting spheres, , when two charged conductors are connected by a conducting wire  39 Minutes 
21  charge distribution on a conductor surfaces in the presence of external electric field  52 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Current definition, Instantaneous current, Average current, current due to Circular and Translational motion of charge, Current through a conductor, Current density  33 Minutes 
02  mechanism of current flow. Relaxation time. Mean Free Path, Drift velocity, Resistance, Resistivity, Conductivity, Ohm’s law, Relation b/w current density & Electric field  29 Minutes 
03  Calculation of Resistance in different cases, , dependence of resistance on length & cross sectional area when wire is stretched, Effect of temperature on Resistance, Resistance in 2 D & 3 D current flow.  31 Minutes 
04  Battery, EMF, some important points about electrical circuits, Potential difference across battery, short circuit, and maximum power dissipated by a battery  1 Hrs 04 Minutes 
05  Kirchhoff’s junction law and voltage/loop law. Point potential method to solve the circuits.  37 Minutes 
06  combination of resistances, series and parallel combinations, Wheat stone bridge,  39 Minutes 
07  Method of symmetry, Infinite series of Resistances  38 Minutes 
08  combination of batteries .series and parallel combination of batteries,mixed combinations, combination of ideal batteries.  40 Minutes 
09  Electrical instruments, Galvanometer, sensitivity of Galvanometer, conversion of Galvanometer into Ammeter and Voltmeter.  45 Minutes 
10  Problems on galvanometer, ammeter and voltmeter  28 Minutes 
11  Potentiometer, Uses of Potentiometer to compare the EMF's of two batteries, to find the internal resistance and EMF of a battery, Meter bridge, zero error  51 Minutes 
12  Postoffice box, rating of electrical instruments like bulb and heater  45 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Introduction to capacitor, types of capacitor, parallel plate capacitor, spherical capacitor, cylindrical capacitor  43 Minutes 
02  energy stored in a capacitor, work done by battery, heat loss, energy density,some problems.a conductor as a capacitor  41 Minutes 
03  Combination of capacitors, series & parallel combination. wheat stone bridge  36 Minutes 
04  Method of symmetry, Infinite series, point potential method, important problems Combination of two charged capacitors, some important problems  49 Minutes 
05  Problems on combinations of charged capacitors, combinations of conductors  42 Minutes 
06  Charging of capacitor, variation of charge , voltage and current with time ,steady state, graphs  34 Minutes 
07  Discharging of capacitor, time constant, variation in charge, voltage, current with time. Method to find the time constant of a circuit  39 Minutes 
08  Circuits with capacitors and resistors, problems  31 Minutes 
09  Dielectrics b/w plates of capacitor change in capacitance, charge and energy with dielectric.  29 Minutes 
10  Some important problems related to dielectric  29 Minutes 
11  Force on dielectric when battery remains connected, motion of dielectric. Force on dielectric when battery is removed, leakage current, dielectric strength  36 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Natural magnet ,pole strength , magnetic dipole moment  20 Minutes 
02  magnetic field produced by Natural magnet at axial point , at Equatorial point and at general point, natural magnet in external magnetic field, Force ,Torque and potential energy of a magnet in external magnetic field. Force between two magnets  37 Minutes 
03  magnetic effect of charge and current, some important points , Right hand screw rule  28 Minutes 
04  Biot savort’s law , Right hand palm rule. Magnetic field produced by straight conductor  30 Minutes 
05  Shape of magnetic lines of forces around a conductor, some important problems  43 Minutes 
06  Circular arc and circular loop, solenoid and troid, magnetic field produced by solenoid and toroid  53 Minutes 
07  Magnetic field produced by moving charge, Biot savort’s law for moving charge. Magnetic field due to circular motion of charge  26 Minutes 
08  closed loop as a magnet . . magnetic dipole moment of closed loop, magnetic dipole moment of rotating charged bodies  26 Minutes 
09  ampere’s law , application of ampere’s law to find the magnetic field due to straight long conductor and long cylindrical conductor  29 Minutes 
10  problems on magnetic field due to cylindrical cavity inside a cylindrical conductor  25 Minutes 
11  Lorentz’s force, magnetic force on moving charge, motion of charge in external magnetic field , motion on circular path, important problems  47 Minutes 
12  motion of charge on helical path with constant pitch, motion on helical path with increasing pitch,  34 Minutes 
13  Motion of charge on cycloid path  27 Minutes 
14  magnetic force on a current carrying conductor, magnetic force between two straight current carrying conductors  27 Minutes 
15  Important problems ,magnetic force and torque on closed loop in external magnetic field  28 Minutes 
16  Earth as a magnet, magnetic and geographical axis, magnetic and geographical meridian, angle of declination, angle of dip, horizontal & vertical component of earth’s magnetic field  29 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Magnetic flux, Faraday’s law, EMF induced, EMF induced due to change in area of loop, due to change in magnetic field ,due to rotation of loop, Lenz’s rule, examples  35 Minutes 
02  Important Examples on Lenz’s rule  23 Minutes 
03  Motional EMF, calculation of motional EMF, use of Motional EMF in circuit as battery,  32 Minutes 
04  Important problems on motional EMF  38 Minutes 
05  motional EMF due to rotation of conductor in external magnetic field.  24 Minutes 
06  Induced electric field due to varying magnetic field, Calculation of Induced electric field in varying magnetic field in cylindrical region  36 Minutes 
07  Self inductance, Inductor, potential difference across an inductor, Energy stored in an inductor, Inductor in a circuit  27 Minutes 
08  Current Growth in an inductor, Time constant, current decay in an inductor  37 Minutes 
09  Mutual induction, Mutual Inductance ,combination of inductors, series and parallel combination,  35 Minutes 
10  LC oscillator and problems  28 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  AC/DC introduction, RMS and Average value of Alternating EMF and current,  35 Minutes 
02  Important problems , AC circuits, circuit containing Resistor only, circuit containing capacitor only, circuit containing Inductor only  36 Minutes 
03  Steps to find instantaneous current in AC circuit, reactance, Impendence, phasor diagram, LCR series circuit, Quality factor  38 Minutes 
04  LC circuit, RC circuit, LR circuit. Examples on AC series circuits  32 Minutes 
05  Average and instantaneous power , Apparent power , power factor, wattles current Parallel AC circuits  52 Minutes 
06  Problems on parallel circuits , Choke coil and Transformer  50 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Dual nature of Light, matterwaves, Debroglie’s formula for wavelength of matterwaves. Graphes relating different parameters of Photon and matter waves, example  41 Minutes 
02  Photometry, Energy of Photon, power incident and Intensity of light assuming particle nature of light, Impulse , Force & Pressure exerted by incident Photons  56 Minutes 
03  Problems on photometry, motion of Photon under gravity  24 Minutes 
04  Photo electric Effect, Work function of a metal, Threshold Energy/Threshold frequency/Threshold wavelength of an incident photon, Maximum kinetic energy of photoelectron, Graphs  37 Minutes 
05  Photocurrent, Saturation current, stopping potential, problems  50 Minutes 
06  graphs plotted by Einstein and conclusions from those graphs, Failure of classical wave theory and explanations given by quantum theory  23 Minutes 
07  Atomic structure, Dalton’s law, Thomson’s Plums pudding theory, Rutherford’s Atomic model, Bohr’s Atomic model and his 4 postulates  24 Minutes 
08  Bohr model and Derivations for Radius of orbit, Energy of Orbit, velocity of electron in an orbit, frequency of electron  31 Minutes 
09  q/m ratio in an orbit,Ground and Excited states, Ionisation Energy and ionisation potential, Excitation Energy and Excitation potential, Binding energy of electrons  28 Minutes 
10  Hydrogen emission spectrum, Lymen series, Balmer series, Paschen series, Pfund series, series limits  38 Minutes 
11  Recoil speed of atoms , problems on atomic structure ,Hydrogen absorption spectrum  28 Minutes 
12  Atomic collisions, problems on atomic collisions  27 Minutes 
13  Energy and radius of orbit when nucleus in motion.Xray introduction, Production of Xray, Types of Xrays, continuous X rays. accelerating voltage  41 Minutes 
14  Characteristics Xrays, cutoff wavelength, ,Kalpha/Kbeta/Lalpha/Lbeta characteristics Xrays and their wavelength/ frequency, Mosley’s law ,Graphs and problems on Xrays  35 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  introduction to nucleus , Atomic number, mass number, Isotopes, Isobars, Isotones, Radius of nucleus, density of nucleus, forces inside nucleus, strong nuclear force, stability of nucleus & N/Z ratio.  27 Minutes 
02  Mass defect, Binding Energy, calculation of Binding energy, examples, alphaparticles, Beta particles, positron, neutrino, antineutrino  34 Minutes 
03 
Alpha particle emission, kinetic energy of alpha particle and Gamaparticle, Beta particle Emission, positron emission, Kcapture 
35 Minutes 
04  Radioactivity, Law of disintegration, statistical law , decay constant, Activity of a sample ,Half life of a sample, Average life of a sample, Carbon Dating  37 Minutes 
05  disintegration with production, successive Disintegration, simultaneous disintegration  27 Minutes 
06  Binding energy per nucleon, stability of a nucleus depending on B/A, fission reaction, Fusion reaction,  24 Minutes 
07  Nuclear reactor, types of reactors, Moderator, coolant, control rods, Critical mass  25 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Wave nature of light, Wave front, wave fronts for point source/line source/plane source. Hygiene’s principle for wave nature of light, Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory of light,  34 Minutes 
02  Interference of light waves, constructive and destructive interference of light, sustainable interference  31 Minutes 
03  Young’s double slit experiment (YDSE), path difference, positions of bright and dark fringes, Fringe width, Total no. of maximas and minimas formed on screen,  26 Minutes 
04  Problems on YDSE , YDSE with white light  23 Minutes 
05  optical path difference, shift in fringe pattern when slabs are placed in front of slits , YDSE with oblique incidence  31 Minutes 
06  YDSE with slabs and oblique incidence ,YDSE when apparatus Immersed inside liquid and slabs are also placed in front of slits, when slits are placed horizontally instead of vertical.Interference through thin films, Lloyd’s mirror, Fresnel’s Biprism  39 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  significant figures ,Least count , maximum uncertainity , rules to find significant figures  
02 
Significant figures in arithmetic operations like addition/substraction/multiplication/division , rules of rounding , Least count , maximum permissible error, problems 

03  Maximum permissible error in a dependent quantity. Fractional error, percentage error , other types of errors like errors due to external causes , instrumental errors , personal error/ chance errors. Errors in averaging in experiment, absolute errors. Example.  
04 
measurement by screw gauge , its Least count , measurement by vernier callipers , its Least count , zero error , examples. 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Energy band , valence band , conduction band , P type semi conductor and N type semi conductor , Holes , Doping  31 Minutes 
02  Motion of Holes , current in semiconductor , conductivity of semiconductor , mobility of holes and electrons  21 Minutes 
03  PN junction, biasing of PN junction, forward biased PN junction and Reversed biased PN junction, diffusion current and drift current, break down of PN junction diode, Zener and avalanche breakdown.  35 Minutes 
04  Uses of PN junction as Rectifier , half wave rectifier , full wave rectifier, transistor , PNP transistor and NPN transistor  36 Minutes 
05  Biasing of a transistor , basic transistor circuits , how transistor works? Uses of transistor as amplifier  37 Minutes 
06  Uses of transistor as switch and in LC oscillation circuit , digital electronics, number systems ,decimal and binary number system  37 Minutes 
07  Logic gates, Boolean expressions , OR gate , AND gate , NOT gate and truth table.  28 Minutes 
08  NOR gate , NAND gate and XOR gate  23 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Ampere Maxwell law, displacement current, electromagnetic wave, its properties and equation of electromagnetic waves. Intensity of Electromagnetic waves. Different types of Electromagnetic waves , their wavelength , their production and Detection  27 Minutes 
02  some important problems on Displacement current and Electromagnetic waves  20 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  communication system , modes of communications ,Transducer and Transmitter , signal , Noise , Receiver , Attenuation , Amplification , Range , Band width , Modulation , Demodulation  27 Minutes 
02  Band widths of signal , analog signal and digital signal , Band widths of transmission medium , Line communication , Radio communication , Optical communication , Types of wave propagation , Ground wave propagation , sky wave propagation , space wave propagation. Height of Tower and maximum distance covered by transmission  39 Minutes 
03  modulation and its necessity ,minimum length of antenna , types of modulation.Amplitude modulation ,side band frequencies , modulation index , disadvantages of amplitude modulation  26 Minutes 
04  Frequency modulation ,frequency deviation , carrier swing , modulation index , frequency spectrum , deviation ratio.percent modulation, Pulse modulation ,pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) , pulse width modulation (PWM) , pulse position modulation (PPM),Demodulation , important problems  31 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Human eye, near point, far point, least distance of distinct vision, Eye defects, Near sightedness (myopia) and its remedy, far sightedness (Hypermetropia) and its remedy. Problems  36 Minutes 
02  Magnifying power of optical instruments, simple microscope (magnifying glass), Magnification when image is formed at Least distance of distinct vision and magnification when image is formed at infinity. Compound microscope (magnifying glass) ,magnification when image is formed at Least distance of distinct vision and magnification when image is formed at infinity.  42 Minutes 
03 
Telescope, astronomical telescope , its magnification when image is formed at Least distance of distinct vision and magnification when image is formed at infinity.  Terrestrial telescope , magnification when image is formed at Least distance of distinct vision and magnification when image is formed at infinity. Galilean Telescope , magnification when image is formed at Least distance of distinct vision and magnification when image is formed at infinity 
37 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Diffraction ,single slit Diffraction, some important points about diffraction, difference between Interference and diffraction  51 Minutes 
02  Resolution , Rayleigh criteria for resolution , Resolution by simple microscope , resolution by telescope  33 Minutes 
03  Polarization , polarizer , analyzer , plane of polarization , polarization by reflection , angle of polarization ,Brewster’s law  25 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  magnetic materials , paramagnetic ,ferromagnetic , Domain and Diamagnetic materials,intensity of magnetisation  27 Minutes 
02  magnetic intensity , magnetic susceptibility , curies law , permeability of medium , hysteresis loop , retentivity ,coercive force ,hysteresis loop of iron and steel  37 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Definition of set, Methods to represent sets : (1) Roster form or tabular method (2) Set builder (Property method), Interconversion of Roster form into set builder form or viceversa; Types of sets: (1) Null Set (2) Singleton set (3) Finite set & Cardinal number of set (4) Equivalent sets. (5) Equal sets 
34 Minutes 
02  Subsets, Proper subset, Total number of subsets, Idea of intervals: (1) Close interval (2) Openinterval (3) Discrete interval or curly bracket, Operation on sets (By venndiagram) (1) Union of 2 sets (2) Intersection of 2 sets (3) Set A and its complement 
43 Minutes 
03  (4) Set A but not B (5) Set B but not A (6) Neither A nor B #Demorgan’s Law (7) Atleast one set out of three sets A, B, C (8) Atleast 2 sets out of 3 sets (9) Exact 2 sets out of 3 sets (10) Exact 1 set out of 3 sets (11) Neither A, B nor C. Laws of Algebra of sets 
44 Minutes 
04  Cartesian Product ordered pair, ordered triplets, Cartesian Product of 2 sets or 3 sets, Introduction of Relations 
52 Minutes 
05  Relations, Total number of relations, types of relations: (1) Void relation (2) Universal Relation (3) Identity Relation (4) Reflexive Relation (5) Symmetric Relation (6) Transitive Relation (7) Equivalence Relation 
1 Hrs 02 Minutes 
06  Definition of function, Its domain and codomain and range.  43 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 

01  Definition of Function, Domain, Codomain, Range, Mapping diagram, Graphical definition of function, Rational (or Polynomial) Functions, Basic concepts, Rational inequalities, Steps to solve RationalInequalities. 
1 Hrs 14 Minutes 
02  Solving Rationalinequalities (Nonrepeated and repeated linear factors), How to take square and reciprocal in case of inequalities. 
1 Hrs 04 Minutes 
03  Modulus or Absolute value functions, Formulae of modulusfunctions, Removal of ModulusFunctions, Graphs of ModulusFunction, Modulus  Inequalities. 
1 Hrs 05 Minutes 
04  ModulusEquations and Inequalities.  55 Minutes 
05  Irrationalfunctions, their domain and Range, Irrational Equations and inequalities, Determining domain of irrational functions. 
1 hrs 03 Minutes 
06  IrrationalInequalities, Exponential & Logarithmic functions, their basic graphs, formulae.  1 hrs 05 Minutes 
07  Formulae of Log functions, Log and exponential equations.  50 Minutes 
08  Exponential and Loginequalities when base is positive fractional or greater than one.  41 Minutes 
09  (a) Loginequalities when base is variable (b) Loginequalities when base is variable. Determining domain of Logfunctions. 
(a) 33 Minutes (b) 48 Minutes 
10  Greatest integer function (GIF), Basic graph, Formulae, Fractional Part function (FPF), Basic Graph, Formulae, Signumfunction, Basic graph. Questions. 
1 Hrs 
11  (a,b) Questions on GIF, FPF and Signum functions. 
(a) 39 Minutes (b) 32 Minutes 
12  (a) Trigonometric equations, General Solutions, Fundamental and General period of Basic TRatios, Questions (b) Questions the determining General and Particular solutions of TEquations. 
(a) 1 Hr. 04 Minutes (b) 32 Minutes. 
13  (a) Questions, Tinequalities (b) Tinequalities, Domain of TFunctions. 
(a) 42 Minutes (b) 35 Minutes 
14  Inverse trigonometric functions, condition for defining inverse of a function, classification of functions. OneOne (Injective) or many one functions, onto (Surjective) or into functions, bijective functions, Basic Graphs of 6 inverse trigonometric  functions. Properties of ITF, Defining T (T^{–1}(x)) or T^{–1 }(T(x)) 
1 Hrs 15 Minutes 
15  Finding basic values of ITF, Domain of all types of functions.  1 hrs 06 Minutes 
16  Domain of functions, Range of Functions Method of determining Range of functions M1 Represent x or function of x in terms of y M2 Range by Using Monotonocity 
1 hrs 12 Minutes 
17  M3 Range of L / L, Q / L, L / Q, Q / Q M4 Range of composite functions 
1Hrs 15 Minutes 
18  Domain and Range of composite functions by defining them in oneinterval or in differentdifferent intervals. (Using graphical method) 
1 Hrs 10 Minutes 
19  Composite functions in different intervals. Types of functions: (1) oneone (injective function) Condition of injectivity by differentiation (2) Onto (surjective) functions. (3) Bijective functions. Inverse of a function 
1 Hrs 17 Minutes 
20  Number of 11 mappings, number of surjective (onto) mapping, questions on classification of functions.  1 hrs 04 Minutes 
21  Questions on classification of functions and determining inverse of a function.  58 Minutes 
22  Inequalities of Inverse trigonometric functions, graphs of y = T (T^{–1} (x)) = x (NonPeriodic Functions) Graphs of y = T^{–1} (T(x)) (Periodic Functions) 
1 Hrs 
23  Graphs of y = T^{–1} (T(x)), Questions, Interconversion between various ITF’s. 
1 hrs 06 Minutes 
24  Equal or Identical functions; Simplification of Miscellaneous ITF’s, Graphs.  1 hrs 11 Minutes 
25  (a) Simplification of Miscellaneous ITF’s, Inversetrigonometric functions of tan^{–1}x ± tan^{–1}y, sin^{–1}x ± sin^{–1}y or cos^{–1}x ± cos^{–1}y, Questions (b) Solving Inverse trigonometric equations. 
(a) 51 Minutes (b) 40 Minutes 
26  Summation series of inversetrigonometric functions, even or odd functions.  1 hrs 01 Minutes 
27  Even or odd functions, periodic functions, fundamental or general periods of basic functions, properties related to periodicity of functions. 
1 Hrs 05 Minutes 
28  Determining the fundamental period of functions, Range by period of function, functional equations to determining period. 
1 hrs 02 Minutes 
29 
(a) FunctionalEquations. Graphs: 
(a) 47 Minutes (b) 54 Minutes 
30  Curve tracing using differential calculus. Graph of maximum/minimum of functions between two or more than 2 functions. 
1 Hrs 12 Minutes 
31  MaximumMinimum of a Curve, Miscellaneous graphs  54 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 
01  (a) Concept of Limit, Left Hand Side Limit (LHL) and Right Hand Side Limit (RHL) , Algebra on limits (b) 7 Indeterminant forms, Steps to determining limit of a function when x→a, where to evaluate LHL & RHL separately (Doubtful points) 
(a) 52 Minutes (b) 36 Minutes 
02  (a) Identify type of indeterminant forms, Method of solving Limits (i) Factorisation (ii) Rationalization (b) Questions on factorisation and Rationalisation 
(a50 Min., b25 Min.) 
03  (a) M3 Evaluate of limit when x →∞ or x→ –∞ (b) Questions based on method no.3 
(a34 Min., b33 Min.) 
04  (a) M4 Series expansion by Maclaurin’s Series, Series Expansion of Basic functions, (b) Determining unknown parameters by series expansion. M5 Standard  Limits 
(a37 Min., b27 Min.) 
05  (a) Formulae of standardlimits, Questions based on standard limits. (b) Standard limits using substitution method. M6 Limit in form of 1^{∞} 
(a47 Min., b28 Min.) 
06  (a) Questions on 1^{∞} form. L’Hospital’s rule (LHRule). (b) Questions based on LHRule 
(a36 Min., b22 Min.) 
07  (a) 0° or ∞° forms. (b) Miscellaneous questions of limit 
(a41 Min., b36 Min.) 
08  Sandwitch Theorem ( or Squeeze  Play Theorem) Continuity of a function y = f(x) at point x = a Types of discontinuity: (1) First kind of discontinuity (removable discontinuity) (In this case limit exist) (A) Missing point discontinuity. (B) Isolated point discontinuity. (2) NonRemovable Discontinuity (Limit does not exist) (A) Finite Nonremovable discontinuity, Jump of discontinuity =  RHL – LHL  (B) Infinite Nonremovable discontinuity. (C) Oscillating discontinuity. Jump of discontinuity =  RHL – LHL  
55 Minutes 
09  (a, b) Continuity at a point, Continuity in an interval, determining unknown parameters using concept of continuity at a point. 
(a32 Min., b18 Min.) 
10  (a, b) Differentiability of a function at a point, Equation of tangent at a point, Questions to check continuity and differentiability at a point 
(a45 Min., b20 Min.) 
11  (a) Determining unknown parameters using concepts of continuity and differentiability at a point. Continuity and differentiability of higher order derivatives. (b) Questions based on LH rule and differentiation. 
(a38 Min., b30 Min.) 
12  (a, b) Differentiability in an interval, questions based to check continuity and differentiability in an interval.  (a29 Min., b27 Min.) 
13  (a) Graphical method to check differentiability, Differentiability of maximumminimum of two or more than 2 functions. (b) Graphical method to check differentiability 
(a32 Min., b30 Min.) 
14  (a) Determination of a function using differentiation (b) Miscellaneous questions based on LCD. 
(a25 Min., b24 Min.) 
15  (a, b) Miscellaneous questions based on LCD.  (a33 Min., b34 Min.) 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 
01  (a) Some basic differentiation by using first principle (ABInitio method), Rules of differentiation (b) Formulae of differentiation, Properties of differentiation , Differentiation of Product of two functions, Chain Rule, Differentiation of u/v, Differentiation of composite functions, Differentiation of Parametric functions, Differentiation of one function w.r.t. other functions. 
(a30 Min., b41.22 Min.) 
02  Questions of Differentiation of functions.  55 Minutes 
03  (a, b) Differentiation of Logfunctions.  (a29 Min., b23 Min.) 
04  (a) Derivative of inverse  functions. (b) Derivative of inverse  functions by substitution method. 
(a16 Min., b38 Min.) 
05  (a) Derivative of Inverse  Functions by substitution method (b) Derivative of Inverse  Functions and derivative of higher order Inverse functions. (c) Questions based on differentiation of ITFs, Parametric differentiation 
(a25 Min., b33 Min., c25 Min.) 
06  (a,b) Parametric Differentiation, Differentiation of Implicit functions.  (a37 Min., b21 Min.) 
07  (a) Derivative of functions represented by infinite series, Differentiation of determinants. (b) Higher order derivatives. 
(a28 Min., b25 Min.) 
08  (a,b) Higher order derivatives.  (a24 Min., b25 Min.) 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 
01  (a) Brief Revision of Straight Line and TangentNormal: Equation of tangent and Normal to the curve y = f (x) at a point, Length of tangent, Length of subtangent, Length of normal, Length of subnormal, Tangent to the curve at (0, 0) (b) Questions based on concept of tangent and normal when point lies on the curve. 
(a27 Min., b42 Min.) 
02  (a) Questions based on tangent and normal when curve given in parametric form. (b) Tangent and normal from an external point. 
(a26 Min., b34 Min.) 
03  (a) Questions based on tangents and normals from an external point. (b) Tangent on the curve  intersecting the curve again. 
(a35 Min., b23 Min.) 
04  (a) Commontangents. (b) Angle of intersection of two curves; shortest distance between 2 nonintersecting curves. 
(a36 Min., b39 Min.) 
05  (a) Rate of change (b) Approximate value of a number, Monotonocity of a function, strictly increasing (SI), Strictly decreasing (SD), Monotonically increasing (MI), Monotonically decreasing (MD) functions, Monotonocity at a point and in an interval, Condition for monotonocity for differentiable functions, Monotonocity of discontinuous functions. 
(a26 Min., b46 Min.) 
06  (a, b) Questions on monotonicity of function at a point or in an interval.  (a35 Min., b39 Min.) 
07  (a) Questions of Monotonocity. (b) Proving inequalities by using monotonocity. 
(a35 Min., b32 Min.) 
08  (a) Concavity, Convexity and point of inflexion (POI) of curve. (b) Curve tracing by using concept of differential calculus. 
(a30 Min., b29 Min.) 
09  (a, b) Rolle’s theorem, Langrange’s Mean Value theorem (LMVT)  (a30 Min., b35 Min.) 
10  (a, b, c) Maxima and minima at a point, local maxima and local minima and absolute maxima and absolute minima. Range of a function in an interval. Using concept of maxima and minima. 
(a28 Min., b20 Min., c29 Min.) 
11  (a, b) Questions.  (a28 Min., b28 Min.) 
12  (a) Questions of Maxima and Minima based on location of roots. Theory of equations using maxima and minima. (b) Questions. (c) Optimization of Geometrical problems by maxima and minima. 
(a33 Min., b40 Min., c55 Min.) 
13  (a, b) Geometry Problems.  (a43 Min., b41 Min.) 
14  Geometry Problems.  33 Minutes 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 
01  (a) Concept of integration, Standard formulae (b) Defining all standard formulae. 
(a34 Min., b23 Min.) 
02  (a, b) Basic integration directly formulae based.  (a39 Min., b39 Min.) 
03  (a) Substitution method; Formulae of some standard substitution. (b) Questions based on substitution method. 
(a27 Min., b33 Min.) 
04  (a) Integral in the form of : ∫sin^{m} x cos^{n} x dx ; ∫ tan^{m} x sec^{n} x dx (b) Integral in the form of : ∫ x^{m}(a + bx^{n} )dx , Questions on substitution method. 
(a40 Min., b31 Min.) 
05  (a) Questions on substitution method in irrational functions. (b) Questions on substitution method. 
(a34 Min., b38 Min.) 
06  (a) Integration by parts. (b) Integration by parts, Using (A) ∫e^{x} (f(x) + f '(x))dx = f(x)e^{x} + C OR (B) ∫(f(x) + xf '(x))dx = xf(x) + C 
(a35 Min., b36 Min.) 
07  (a) Questions based on integration by parts. (b) Questions based on integration by parts, Integration of Rational function  by partial fraction method (i) When nonrepeated linear factors in denominator (ii) Repeated linear factors in denominator (iii) Quadratic factors in denominator (D<0) 
(a29 Min., b38 Min.) 
08 
(a) Questions on partial fraction method Integration in the form of : ∫ (px+q)dx ÷ ax^{2}+bx+c (b) Integration in the form of : ∫ (x^{2} ± a^{2})dx ÷ x^{4}+kx^{2}+a^{4} or ∫ dx ÷ x^{4}+kx^{2}+a^{4} Integration in the form of : (a) ∫ dx ÷ x(x^{n} + 1) (b) ∫ dx ÷ x^{n} (1+x^{n})^{1/n} (c) ∫ dx ÷ x^{2}(x^{n}+1)^{n1/n} 
(a44 Min., b32 Min.) 
09 
(a) Integration of Irrational Functions Integration in the form of : ∫ (px+q)dx ÷ √ax^{2}+bx+c OR ∫(px+q) √ax^{2}+bx+c dx (b) Integration in the form of : (A) ∫ dx ÷ (px+q)√ax+b (B) ∫ dx ÷ (px^{2}+qx+r)√ax+b (C) ∫ dx ÷ (px+q)√ax^{2}+bx+c (D) ∫ dx ÷ (px^{2}+qx+r)√ax^{2}+bx+c (c) Questions based on Integration of Irrational functions. 
(a35 Min., b25 Min.) 
10 
(a) Integration in the form of : ∫ dx ÷ a + bsin x OR ∫ dx ÷ a + bcos x ∫ dx ÷ asinx ± bcos x OR ∫ dx ÷ a sinx ± b cos x + c OR ∫ (p sin x + qcos x + r) ÷ (a cos x + b sin x + c) * dx Integration in the form of : ∫ (a sin x + b) dx ÷ (a+b sin x)^{2} OR ∫ (a cos x+b) dx ÷ (a+b cos x)^{2} Integration in the form of ∫(sinx + cos x)f(sin2x)dx (b) Integration in the form of : ∫ f(e^{ax} )dx OR ∫ (ae^{x} + be^{x} ) ÷ (pe^{x} + qe^{x} )*dx , Reduction Formulae. 
(a42 Min., b38 Min.) 
11  (a, b) Miscellaneous Questions  (a25 Min., b38 Min.) 
12  (a, b) Miscellaneous Questions  (a33 Min., b29 Min.) 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 
01 
(a, b) Introduction of definite integral (DI), Geometrical interpretation of definite integral,
b b 
(a49 Min., b35 Min.) 
02 
(a, b) Questions based on P1, P2 and Concepts of indefinite integration. 
(a38 Min., b33 Min.) 
03 
b c b 
(a33 Min., b38 Min.) 
04 
b b a a Questions based on P4. 
(a44 Min., b40 Min.) 
05 
(a, b) Questions based on P4, Questions based on P5, P6. 
(a41 Min., b33 Min.) 
06 
(a, b) Property No. 7 (Based on periodicity of function) :
nT T 
(a37 Min., b52 Min.) 
07  (a) Questions based on Leibnitz theorem. (b) Definite Integrals as the limit of a sum (ABinitio method). 
(a27 Min., b47 Min.) 
08  Questions based on integral as Limit of a sum.  (a35 Min.) 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 
01  (a,b) Quadrature, How to evaluate area under the curve with xaxis or with yaxis, area bounded by the two intersecting curves, area bounded by the curves in different2 conditions. 
(a37 Min., b17 Min.) 
02  (a, b, c) Questions based on area under the curves.  (a28 Min., b24 Min., c29 Min.) 
03  (a, b) Questions, Questions based on determining parameters.  (a36 Min., b29 Min.) 
04  (a, b) Questions based on determining the parameters, area under the curves using inequalities.  (a36 Min., b39 Min.) 
05  (a, b) Area under the curves using functional inequalities, area bounded with f(x) and its inverse f^{–1} (x). Miscellaneous Questions. 
(a30 Min., b30 Min.) 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 
01  (a, b, c) Introduction of DE, Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) and Partial Differential Equations (PDE), Order and degree of DE, about constants, arbitrary constants and essential arbitrary constants, Formation of differential equations, Methods of solving differential equations. General solutions and particular solutions of differential equations. Method no.1 : Variable separable form, in the form of dy÷dx= f(x).g(y). 
(a47 Min., b18 Min., c22 Min.) 
02  (a, b) Method no. 2: (a) Reduces to variable separable form, i.e. in the form of dy÷dx = f(ax+by+c). (b) Substitution method: in x^{2} + y^{2} = r^{2} , put x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ, and in x^{2} – y^{2} = r^{2} , put x = r sec θ, y = r tan θ, Method no. 3: Solution of Homogeneous differential equations, in the form of dy÷dx = f(y÷x) or dx÷dy=f(x÷y), Questions 
(a27 Min., b34 Min.) 
03  (a, b, c) Questions on method no. 3, Method No. 4 : Reduces to Homogeneous Differential equation, i.e. in the form of dy÷dx=ax+by+c÷Ax+By+k , Questions Method no. 5 : Exact (direct) differential equations. Questions based on method no. 5. 
(a25 Min., b34 Min., c23 Min.) 
04  (a, b) Method no. 6 : Linear differential equation, i.e. in the form of dy÷dx+Py=Q OR dx÷dy+Px=Q Method No.7 : Reduces to linear differential equations (Bernoulli’s equations)  (a40 Min., b33 Min.) 
05  (a, b, c) Geometrical applications of differential equations, Tangent and normal to the curve y = f(x) at point (x, y), length of tangent, Length of subtangent, Length of Normal, Length of subnormal, Radiusvector, Higher Degree & order of differential equations, orthogonal trajectory (OT) of curves, Clairaut’s differential equations. 
(a29 Min., b35 Min., c32 Min.) 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 
01 
Definition of Matrix A = [a_{i j} ]_{m x n} # Algebra of matrices 
1:19 Hrs. 
02  Questions based on types of matrices and Algebra of Matrices. Questions based on Matrix  multiplication, transpose of matrix, properties of transpose. 
(a32 Min., b42 Min.) 
03 
Questions based on Transpose and multiplication, some special types of square matrices : #Submatrix 
1 Hr. 15 Min. 
04  Questions (1), (2) and (3) Solutions of questions No. (1), (2) and (3) Question based on square matrices. 
54 Min. 
05  Introduction of determinants, Expansion of 2x2 and 3x3 order determinants, Properties of determinants. 
1 Hr. 35 Min. 
06  (a) Questions on determinants (b) Questions on determinants, product of 2 determinants, questions based on product of determinants. 
(a58 Min., b45 Min.) 
07  Questions on product of 2 determinants, Differentiation and integration of determinants, Summation of determinants, System of NonHomogenous Linear equations in 3 variables, Cramer’s rule. 
1 Hr. 2 Min. 
08  System of linear equations in 2variables, Consistency and Inconsistency of linear equations, Homogenous system of linear equations, Trivial and Nontrivial solutions of Homogenous linear equations, Questions. 
1 Hr. 1 Min. 
09  (a) Adjoint of square matrix, inverse of a square matrix, Properties of adjoint and Inverse of matrix, Cancellation Law. System of Linear equations by matrix method, questions. (b) Questions, Elementary transformations along row (column), Introduction of Rank of a matrix. (c) Determination of Rank of a matrix. 
(a55 Min., b39 Min., c20 Min.) 
10  (a) Consistency and Nonconsistency of system of Linear equations by Rank method, Solution of 3 equations in two variables. (b) Matrices polynomial, characteristic matrix, CaleyHamilton theorem. Inverse of a nonsingular matrix by elementary transformation (along Row / Column) (Board Topic) 
(a52 Min., b37 Min.) 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 
01  Introduction of vector, types of vectors: (1) Null vectors (2) Unit Vector Law’s of addition/subtraction in a parallelogram. (3) Position vector (PV) (4) Equal vectors (5) Parallel or collinear vectors 
1 Hr. 13 Min. 
02  (a) (6) Coplanar vectors (7) Reciprocal vectors Geometry on vectors (1) Distance formula (2) Section formula (Internal section division and External section Division) (3) Centroid (4) Incentre. #Questions Dot product (scalarproduct) of two vectors. Geometrical interpretation, projection of vector. Component of vector. (b) Projection and component of vector along and perpendicular to other vector, Properties of dot product, Questions. 
(a55 Min., b39 Min.) 
03  Cross product (Vector  product) of two vectors, Geometrical  interpretation, properties of crossproduct, Questions. 
(1 Hr. 2 Min.) 
04  Direction cosines (DC’s) and direction Ratios (DR’s) of a line segment, questions.  (1 Hr. 20 Min.) 
05  Vector equation of a line (parametric & non parametric form), Symmetrical form of a line (3D Form) Point of intersection of 2 lines, Questions. 
50 Minutes 
06  Questions based on line.  38 Minutes 
07  Questions, Plane, Vector equation of a plane passing through a point and whose direction alongn n , General equation of plane, equation of a plane passing through 3 points, Intercept form of plane, Condition of coplanarity of 4 points, angle between 2 planes, Equation of plane parallel to given plane, Distance between two parallel planes, Perpendicular distance, Foot of perpendicular, Image of a point w.r.t. plane. Angle bisectors of two planes. 
57 Minutes 
08  Condition of acute or obtuse angle bisectors, position of points w.r.t. plane or angle bisector containing a points; Angle between two planes, condition of line perpendicular to plane and condition of a line parallel to plane. Questions based on line and plane. 
(1 Hr. 3 Min.) 
09  Questions based on line & plane.  57 Minutes 
10  Family of planes passing through line of intersection of 2 planes, symmetrical form of line, unsymmetrical form of line, reduction of unsymmetrical form of line into symmetrical form. Questions, Condition of coplanarity of two lines. Equation of plane containing 2 lines. Questions 
56 Minutes 
11  Questions, skewlines, shortest distance (SD) between 2 skewlines, condition for lines to be intersecting, distance between two parallel lines. 
49 Minutes 
12  Angle bisectors of two lines, Acute or obtuse angle bisectors. Questions  46 Minutes 
13  Scalar triple product (STP) of 3 vectors. Geometrical interpretation. Volume of parallelopiped. Properties of STP. Vectortriple product of three vectors (VTP). Geometrical  Interpretation. 
(1 Hr. 11 Min.) 
14  Questions on STP and VTP, Tetrahedron, its centroid, volume of tetrahedron, angle between any 2 faces of regular tetrahedron. 
(1 Hr. 5 Min.) 
15  (a,b) Circumradius and inradius of regular tetrahedron. Questions, Reciprocalsystem of vectors, Linearly Independent and Linearly dependent vectors (LILD), Sphere, Types of sphere, Section of Sphere intersected by a plane, Questions of sphere. 
(a47 Min., b60 Min.) 
Lecture#  Description  Duration 
01  Some definitions : (1) Experiment (2) Sample  space (3) Event (E) Types of Events: (a) Happening or occurance of an event (b) Compliment (Nonoccurance) of event, Definition of Probability : p(A) = Favourable elements of event A / Total elements (c) Simple events (d) Compound or mixed events (e) Exclusive: Events (f) Exhaustive events (g) Equally likely events (h) Independent events or dependent events Questions based on permutation and combination. 
(a 47 Min., b28 Min., c26 Min., d41 Min.) 
02  Algebra of events: (1) Event A (2) Complement of event A (3) Events A & B both (4) Atleast event A or B (5) Event A but not event B (6) Event B but not event A (7) Exactly one event out of 2 events (8) None of events A or B (9) Event A or B but not both (10) Atleast one of the events A, B, C (11) Exactly one event out of 3 events (12) Exactly 2 events out of 3 events (13) None of events out of 3 events. (14) Occurance of events A & B but not C. Questions based on Algebra of events, Conditional probability, Multiplication theorems for dependent or Independent events, Complement Law, Questions on Conditional Probability. 
(a34 Min., b35 Min., c25 Min., d24 Min.) 
03  Questions based on Conditional probability, Questions based on dependent or independent events, Law’s of total probability. 
(a26 Min., b29 Min., c31 Min., d39 Min.) 
04  Baye’s theorem (Reverse theorem).  (a27 Min., b40 Min., c24 Min., d4 Min.) 
05  Discrete  Random variable, Probability  Distribution, Mean & Variance of discrete  random variable X, Variance, Standard derivation, #Binomial  Distribution, Mean and Variance of Binomial Distribution, Questions based on them. 
(a35 Min., b 32 Min., c26 Min.) 