COMPLETE CHEMISTRY FOR CLASS XI and XII
Subject chemistry Medium ENGLISH
Faculty NV Sir AND VKP Sir Status AVAILABLE
Category COMPLETE COURSE Lecture 351
Target XI XII XIII Books QUESTION BANK ATTACHED
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Syllabus

Periodic table

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Dobereiner's triad, Newland’s octave law, lother meyer curve, Mendeleev's periodic table. Moseley's periodic table 31 Minutes
02 Periodicity, blocks in periodic table, diagonal relationship, naming of element z > 100, Determination of period & block, Ionic radius 37 Minutes
03 Covalent radius, vanderwaal radius, effective nuclear charge, shielding effect/screening effect, slater’s law 34 Minutes
04 Factor affecting atomic radius. trend of atomic radius exception of atomic radius, lanthanide contraction. 40 Minutes
05 Ionisation energy, Factors affective IE, Trend in I.E. 27 Minutes
06 Exceptions in ionisation energy,Comparison of IE1 & IE2,Application of IE ionisation energy 40 Minutes
07 Electron affinity, electron gain enthalpy, factor affecting electron affinity, 41 Minutes
08 Second electron gain enthalpy,Electronegativity, Pauling scale, mulliken scale, Hanny smith of formula. 44 Minutes
09 Nature of XOH
    Acidic, basic, neutral and amphoteric oxide, Nature of oxide, Hydroxide and oxyacids, Inert pair effect
50 Minutes

Chemical bonding

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Chemical bond, ionic bond, lattice energy, born haber cycle, Hess law 46 Minutes
02 Properties of ionic compound, Hydration & Hydration energy. Solubility in water. 39 Minutes
03 Factors affecting Hydration Energy, Solubility order, Covalent bond, Lewis concept. 38 Minutes
04 Lewis structure, Exception of Lewis rule, Hypovalent, Hypervalent, odd electron species, coordinate bond formation, lewis acid & base. 42 Minutes
05 Formal charge, Resonance 46 Minutes
06 Valence bond theory (VBT) ,axial & Lateral overlapping,𝞂 bond, Π bond, 𝛅 bond 49 Minutes
07 Hybridisation-sp, sp2, sp3, sp3d, sp3d2, sp3d3 48 Minutes
08 Steric number rule for hybridisation, Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory VSEPR 48 Minutes
09 Examples of sp & sp2 Hybridisation 41 Minutes
10 Fullerenes, diamond, Compounds of phosphorus & sulphur. 53 Minutes
11 Compounds of silicon,
    Silica, orthosilicate, pyrosilicate, chain silicate, cyclic silicate, double chain silicate
50 Minutes
12 Silicons, equivalent and nonequivalent hybrid orbitals bent rule 42 Minutes
13 Examples of sp3d, sp3d2 & sp3d3 Hybridisation, Drago’s rule. 40 Minutes
14 Molecular orbital theory (MOT),  linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) 46 Minutes
15 MOT examples , s-p mixing ,O2, F2, H2, N2, Ne2 1 hrs
16 HOMO & LUMO,GERADE & UNGERADE,Dipole moment & ionic character in ionic compound 37 Minutes
17 Application of dipole moment % ionic character by dipole moment fazan, rule, covalent character in ionic compound 57 Minutes
18 Application of fajan's rule, Banana bonding in diborane. 50 Minutes
19 Back bonding in BF3 examples of back bonding 44 Minutes
20 Bond angle comparison bond length & bond strength comparison. 37 Minutes
21 p𝚷 - d𝚷 bonding, p𝚷 - p𝚷 bonding
    Solubility due to hydrolysis of BF3, SiCl4, PCl3, compound, Interhalogen
21 Minutes
22 Metallic bonding, H bonding, intermolecular H-bonding Intramolecular H bonding 49 Minutes
23 Examples of h-bonding, van der waal forces( ion-dipole, dipole-dipole , ion-induced dipole, dipole-induced dipole, london dispersion forces) 55 Minutes
24 Factors affecting van der waal forces , existence and nonexistence of molecules 43 Minutes

Boron & carbon Family group 13 & 14

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Member of boron family.
 Physical properties  (radius, oxidation state, ionisation energy, electronegativity, density) Chemical properties (reactivity with air) Anomalous behaviour of B Diagonal relationship between B & Si.
28 Minutes
02 Formation of boron, compounds of boron, B3O3, boric acid, borax bead test. 27 Minutes
03 Diborane, borazine,  boron nitride, back bonding in BF3. 49 Minutes
04 Aluminium, Compounds, Al2O3, Al(OH)3, AlCl3 ,Carbon family, Inert Pair effect, order of ionisation energy, electronegativity, Atomic radius, Anomalous behaviour of carbon. 38 Minutes
05 Allotropes of carbon, diamond, graphite, fullerene, reactivity with O2., H2O & X2. 34 Minutes
06 Compound of carbon,Carbon monoxide,Carbon dioxide,Carbonic acid,Compounds of silicon,Silica 27 Minutes
07 Ortho silicate,Pyrosilicate ,Cyclic silicate,Chain silicate,Double chain silicate,Sheet silicate,3D silicate,Silicates,Compounds of tin & & Lead 29 Minutes

S block

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Physical and chemical properties of alkali metal( ionisation energy, atomic radius , physical appearance, b.p. And m.p.) 32 Minutes
02 Reaction of alkali metal with O2, h2O, halogen, carbon, reducing nature of alkali metal , solution in liquid ammonia, anomalous behaviour of lithium 44 Minutes
03 Diagonal relationship between lithium and magnesium, compounds of sodium Na2O2, formation of NaOH 29 Minutes
04 Properties of NaOH, , Na2CO3, sovay process , NaHCO3 22 Minutes
05 Microcosmic salt, compounds of potassium, solution in liq. Ammonia  8 Minutes
06 Physical and chemical properties of alkaline earth metal( ionisation energy, atomic radius , physical appearance, b.p. And m.p.) 38 Minutes
07 Hydride , hydroxide, oxide , nitride of alkaline earth metal 20 Minutes
08 anomalous behaviour of berylium,Diagonal relationship between berylium and aluminium, compounds of Mg and Ca, gypsum and plaster of paris  

Metallurgy

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Types of ore, Methods of metallurgy, crushing grinding, concentration, gravity separation, magnetic separation, froth floatation. 38 Minutes
02 Leaching, calcination, roasting, flux, slag, reduction with carbon, carbon monoxide, self reduction. Electrolytic reduction is fused / aqueous solution. 40 Minutes
03 Reduction with Al, Mg, H2, Thermal decomposition, metal displacement reduction, metallurgy of Aq & Au, Macarthur forrest cyanide method, copper extraction. 38 Minutes
04 Extraction of Pb, Zn, Hg, Sn, Fe, Al, bayer methode, Hall, serpeck, Hall-Heroult method. 42 Minutes
05 Extraction of Mg, Dow process, Extraction of sodium purification method Liquidation, Distillation Vapour phase refining, poling process, Mond process, Van Arkel method, Electrolytic refining. 46 Minutes
06

Parting with Cl2, concentrated H2So4, Parke process, Thermodynamic of metallurgy Ellingham diagram.

 

50 Minutes

 

Coordination compound

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Simple salt, mixed salt, double salt, coordination compound, central atom, ligand, coordination number, oxidation number :- 30 Minutes
02 Denticity, flexidentate, Ambidentate liquid 24 Minutes
03 Coordination polyhedron, Naming of central atom, cationic ligand, neutral ligand, anionic ligand 27 Minutes
04 Naming of anionic ligand , rules for naming of complex salt, formula of complex , naming of complex having bridging ligand 1 hr 02 Minutes
05 Name of complex containing bridging ligand, reaction with AgNO3, reaction with BaCl2 electrical conductivity 32 Minutes
06 Reaction with conc. H2SO4, Werner’s theory, Sidgwick EAN rule. 23 Minutes
07 Valence bond Theory (VBT) 40 Minutes
08 Crystal field theory for octahedral complex. 37 Minutes
09 Crystal field theory (octahedral complex Examples) 51 Minutes
10 Crystal field theory (octahedral complex Examples), CFT for square planar complex, CFT for tetrahedral complex, structural isomerism, ionisation, hydrate, ligand , linkage, coordination isomerism 1 hr 05 Minutes
11 Examples of tetrahedral complex, factors affecting crystal field splitting energy 54 Minutes
12 Stereoisomerism, geometrical & optical isomerism 57 Minutes
13 Optical isomerism in octahedral complex & factors affecting splitting 45 Minutes
14 Properties of coordination compound stability, magnetic nature, colour, d-d transition. 53 Minutes
15 Charge transfer in brown ring, sodium nitroprusside, back bonding in metal carbonyl, Delta bond, synergic bonding, bonded organometallic compound,ferrocene, zeise salt. 1 hr 01 Minute

Nitrogen family & Oxygen family group 15 & 16

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Physical properties of nitrogen family (atomic radius, Ionisation energy, Electronegativity, Oxidation state), Chemical properties (Hydride, Oxide, Halide) 46 Minutes
02 Compounds of Nitrogen,
    N2, NH3, N2O, NO
34 Minutes
03 Compounds of Nitrogen
    N2O3, N2O4, N2O5, HNO2, HNO3 allotropes of phosphorus (white, red, black)
31 Minutes
04 Compounds of phosphorus, PH3, P4O6, P4O10, PCl3, PCl5 30 Minutes
05 Physical properties of oxygen family (atomic radius, Ionisation energy, Electronegativity, Oxidation state), Chemical properties (Hydride, Oxide, Halide), dioxygen, types of oxide(acidic,basic,neutral,amphoteric,mixed oxide), ozone ,hydrogen peroxide 34 Minutes
06 Allotropes of sulphur, H2S, SO2, SO3, Hypo solution Na2S2O3 20 Minutes

Halogen family & noble gas family Group 17 & 18

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Properties of Halogen family members, Atomic radius,Ionisation,enthalpy,Electronegativity, Bond energy,Anomalous behaviour of fluorine 27 Minutes
02 Properties of F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 Haloger acid HCl, HBr, HI 28 Minutes
03 Properties of HF, CaOCl2, HOCl, HClO2, HClO3. Bleaching powder CaOCl2 32 Minutes
04 HClO4, Interhalogen Compounds & their Hydrolysis, Pseudo halide, Pseudo Halogen
Noble gas
22 Minutes
05 Properties (atomic radius, Mp, b.p. ionisation energy) of noble gas family
Reaction with xenon with F2 & H2, addition compound, Hydrolysis reaction
21 Minutes

d block Element

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Transition metal, general configuration atomic radius, ionization energy. 33 Minutes
02 Density, melting point, oxidation state, standard electrode potential, colour, magnetic properties, nature of oxide, interstitial compound, catalytic properties, alloy formation 33 Minutes
03 Potassium dichromate, Potassium permanganate ,AgBr photography. 39 Minutes

 

Qualitative analysis

Mole concept

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Dalton atomic theory, isotope ,isobar, atomic mass, atomic mass unit amu, molecule, molecular mass 41 Minutes
02 molar mass. Gram atomic mass, gram molecular mass, avogadro law 48 Minutes
03 Relative atomic mass, relative density, vapour density, specific gravity, average atomic mass, average molar mass 44 Minutes
04 Percentage composition, molecular formula, empirical formula, gay-lussac law 30 Minutes
05

Stoichiometry, mole-mole analysis, combustion of hydrocarbon

34 Minutes
06

limiting reagent, percentage yield , consecutive reaction

39 Minutes
07 Principle of atomic conservation POAC 37 Minutes
08 Percentage purity of sample, combustion of carbon, analysis of mixture 29 Minutes
09 Numerical on analysis of mixture, law of mass conservation, law of definite proportions, law of  multiple proportions, law of reciprocal proportions 24 Minutes
10 Solution, solute , solvent, mole fraction, %w/w/, 18 Minutes
11 %w/v, % v/v, strength of solution, molarity, molality, ppm 35 Minutes
12 Interconversion of concentration terms 46 Minutes
13 Molarity of pure water , volume strength of hydrogen peroxide solution, relation between volume strength and molarity 35 Minutes
14 Silver salt method , Eudiometry 38 Minutes
15 examples of eudiometry 27 Minutes
16 Significant figure, rules for counting , rounding off, scientific notation, addition/subtraction, multiplication of significant figure 42 Minutes

 

Equivalent concept

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Oxidation number calculation, average O.N. individual O. N. 44 Minutes
02 Oxidizing agent, reducing agent, disproportion reactions 58 Minutes
03 Balancing of redox and disproportion reaction , balancing of molecular reaction 46 Minutes
04 Equivalent concept. Law of chemical equivalence, relation between mole and equivalent, equivalent mass, valence factor calculation for acid & base 45 Minutes
05 n- factor for salt, n - factor for disproportion reaction 49 Minutes
06 Titration, acid base titration, permanganate titration, dichromate titration 39 Minutes
07 Back titration , double titration 34 Minutes
08 Numerical on double titration, iodometric titration, limitation of equivalent concept 33 Minutes
09 Bleaching powder and calculation of available chlorine from bleaching powder sample 31 Minutes
10 Hardne    ss of water ( temporary & permanent hardness) strength of oleum 35 Minutes
11 Volume strength of hydrogen peroxide solution 20 Minutes

Chemical equilibrium

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Reversible & irreversible reactions, physical and chemical eq, homogeneous and heterogeneous eq, properties of eq, Kp, Kc, Kx, relation between Kp & Kc, relation between Kp and Kx, degree of dissociation 1 hr  13 Minutes
02 Effect of stoichiometry on kp & Kc, examples of homogeneous equilibrium 38 Minutes
03 Numericals of homogeneous eq. 29 Minutes
04 Heterogeneous eq., homogeneous liquid eq., significance of value of k, reaction quotient 53 Minutes
05 Approximation during calculation, relation between vapour density and degree of dissociation 53 Minutes
06 Thermodynamics for chemical eq, factor affecting composition of eq mixture , le-chatelier's principle, effect of concentration , effect of temperature 38 Minutes
07 Effect of change in pressure and volume , effect of catalyst 36 Minutes
08 Addition of inert gas at constant volume and constant pressure, le-chatelier's principle for physical eq, evaporation of water, boiling of water, melting of ice , melting of metal 1 hr
09 Solubility of gas in liquid , allotropic change , simultaneous eq. 42 Minutes

 

Ionic equilibrium

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte, strong acids, weak acids, strong base, weak base , acid base theory, arrhenius concept, bronsted lowry concept , amphiprotic species 31 Minutes
02 Lewis concept , pH scale, properties of water, ionisation constant of water, ionic product of water 45 Minutes
03 pH calculation for strong acid, strong base, mixture of strong acid , mixture of strong acid and base , common ion effect 43 Minutes
04 pH for monobasic weak acid, weak base, ostwald dilution law, pH for very dilute strong acid 41 Minutes
05 Very dilute weak base , mixture of weak acid and strong acid,polyprotic weak acid 40 Minutes
06 Numerical on polyprotic weak acid, mixture of two weak acids 33 Minutes
07 Hydrolysis of salt, salt of strong acid and strong base, salt of weak acid and strong base , salt of weak base and strong acid 52 Minutes
08 Hydrolysis of salt of weak acid and weak base 39 Minutes
09 pH for polyvalent anion, ph for amphiprotic anion , introduction of buffer solution 37 Minutes
10 Acidic buffer and basic buffer 43 Minutes
11 Buffer capacity, titration ( strong acid v/s strong base, strong acid v/s weak base , weak acid v/s strong base) 53 Minutes
12 Titration of H3PO4 v/s NaOH 35 Minutes
13 Indicator, phenolphthalein, methyl orange, pH range for a buffer ,double titration 38 Minutes
14 Solubility of sparingly soluble salt, Ksp, effect of common ion on solubility, simultaneous solubility 44 Minutes
15 Ionic product v/s solubility product,selective precipitation, 41 Minutes
16 solubility of salt in buffer solution, complex formation by salt 37 Minutes
17 Solubility of amphoteric insoluble hydroxide, solubility of salt if cation is hydrolyzed , solubility of salt if anion is hydrolyzed 43 Minutes

Thermodynamics & thermochemistry

Lecture# Description Duration
01 System ,surrounding,open system, closed system, isolated system, thermodynamic variable, process, open cycle ,closed cycle,intensive prop. Extensive prop., state function, path function, heat, work, heat capacity, molar heat capacity, specific heat capacity ,IUPAC , types of process, isothermal, isobaric, isochoric, adiabatic process,convention for heat and work 41 Minutes
02 Reversible and irreversible process, reversible isothermal compression, single step isothermal compression, two stage isothermal compression 56 Minutes
03 Reversible isothermal expansion, single stage isothermal expansion, two stage isothermal expansion, internal energy, degree of freedom, first law of thermodynamics 50 Minutes
04 Enthalpy change , phase transformation 46 Minutes
05 Free expansion, reversible adiabatic process, work calculation for reversible Adiabatic and irreversible  Adiabatic processes 43 Minutes
06 comparison between reversible adiabatic and irreversible adiabatic processes, comparison between reversible adiabatic and reversible isothermal processes 42 Minutes
07 Spontaneous and nonspontaneous process, entropy, second law of thermodynamics , entropy change for system and surrounding 55 Minutes
08 Numerical on entropy change , entropy change during free expansion 40 Minutes
09 Gibbs energy change, heat pump, carnot cycle 56 Minutes
10 Thermochemistry, enthalpy of formation, enthalpy of combustion 48 Minutes
11 Enthalpy of fusion, vaporization,sublimation,bomb calorimeter, enthalpy of neutralisation, enthalpy of ionisation 57 Minutes
12 Bond enthalpy, hess law, resonance energy. Lattice energy , hydration energy, enthalpy of formation of ion, kirchhoff equation, integral enthalpy of solution, calculation of lattice energy using born haber cycle 1 hr 7 Minutes

Gaseous State

Lecture# Description Duration
01 State of matter (solid, Liq, gas) ideal gas equation, Boyle’s law. 32 Minutes
02 Barometer, faulty Barometer 33 Minutes
03 Problems on barometer, Charles law 40 Minutes
04 Gay-lussac’s law, Avogadro's law, ideal gas equation 21 Minutes
05 Numerical 45 Minutes
06 Graham’s law for diffusion. 36 Minutes
07 Kinetic theory of gas, root mean square velocity 40 Minutes
08 Compressibility factor (Z) pressure correction factor, volume correction factor, excluded volume, van der waal gas equation 50 Minutes
09 Virial equation, liquification of gas, critical temperature (Tc) Critical pressure (Pc) Critical volume (Vc) Boyle’s temperature 46 Minutes
10 Liquification of gas manometer
    (Open end, Closed end, reduced equation of state), Collision diameter, Collision frequency
52 Minutes

Atomic structure

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Cathode tube experiment anode rays, radioactive decay. 33 Minutes
02 Thomson plum pudding model. Rutherford model, Nearest distance of approach. 51 Minutes
03 Electromagnetic theory, Planck Quantum Theory, Blackbody radiation, electron volt. 50 Minutes
04 Photoelectric effect, Work function, Threshold frequency stopping potential. 41 Minutes
05 Photo current photo intensity, Bohr model, Bohr Radius 34 Minutes
06 Velocity, Kinetic Energy, Total energy, Potential energy of electron in Bohr orbit 29 Minutes
07 Time period, frequency, ionisation energy, ionisation potential, Excitation energy, excitation potential Binding energy. 35 Minutes
08 Spectrum, emission, line spectrum, band spectrum , H-spectrum, lyman series. 45 Minutes
09 Balmer series, Paschen, Brackett, Pfund, humphrey series, maximum number of spectral lines. 50 Minutes
10 Limitations of bohr model, dual nature of particle, de broglie's equation 41 Minutes
11 Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle Difference between orbit & orbital 39 Minutes
12 Types of orbitals {s, p, d, f}, quantum numbers, (principal, azimuthal, magnetic, spin) 37 Minutes
13 Electron filling rule, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, pauli’s exclusion principle, magnetic nature, magnetic moment 47 Minutes
14 Wave quantum theory, schrodinger wave equation, radial node, angular node. 42 Minutes

 

Solution & colligative properties

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Introduction
    Different concentration terms interconversion, colligative properties, van’t hoff factor calculation, osmotic pressure.
33 Minutes
02 Osmosis , Osmotic pressure (different cases) 47 Minutes
03 Numericals on osmotic pressure 46 Minutes
04 Vapour pressure, relative lowering of vapour pressure, 41 Minutes
05 Numericals on RLVP, Ostwald walker method 40 Minutes
06 Elevation in boiling point, calculation of Kb (molal elevation boiling point constant) . Depression in freezing point, Calculation of Kf, 54 Minutes
07 Numericals on elevation in boiling point and depression in freezing point 36 Minutes
08 Thermodynamic explanation of 𝝙Tb & 𝝙Tf 6 Minutes
09 Raoult’s law when two volatile liquids are mixed 49 Minutes
10 Ideal and nonideal solution 34 Minutes
11 Azeotropes, mixture of two immiscible liquids, solubility of gas in liquid, henry law 58 Minutes

Solid state

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Types of solid, Crystal, Amorphous, unit cell, 2D, 3D, space,lattice. 42 Minutes
02 Primitive, body centred, face centered contribution of atoms in cubic unit cell. Packing fraction of square packing and hexagonal packing 47 Minutes
03 Coordination Number, packing fraction, density of solid.,Simple cubic, BCC, FCC, CCP 44 Minutes
04 Closed packing in 3D HCP packing,
    Linear void, Triangular void, Tetrahedral void, octahedral void, Cubical void Types of void in FCC
57 Minutes
05 Voids in FCC,Different radius ratio for ionic compounds. 47 Minutes
06 Calculation of nearest, next nearest and next to next nearest atoms in SC, BCC, FCC. 29 Minutes
07 Structure of NaCl type, Zns type, CaF2 type, Na2O type, CSCl type, Diamond 50 Minutes
08 Spinal structure, perovskite corundum structure, packing fraction of NaCl, Defect In crystal, Schottky, Frenkel, Interstitial 39 Minutes
09 Non stoichiometric defect, cation excess defect cation deficiency defect, Paramagnetic, Diamagnetic Ferromagnetic, Ferrimagnetic, Antiferromagnetic compound 31 Minutes

 

Chemical kinetics

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Fast reaction , slow reaction, moderate reaction, average rate of reaction, instantaneous rate of reaction, relation of rate of reaction between various reagents , order 57 Minutes
02 Order law, zero order reaction 35 Minutes
03 First order reaction 28 Minutes
04 Half life period for first order reaction 27 Minutes
05 Average life period for first order, generation time , first order bacterial growth, second order reaction 24 Minutes
06 nth order reaction, pseudo first order reaction 35 Minutes
07 Rate of reaction of two or reactant are taken, calculation of order by half life method 32 Minutes
08 Initial rate method , integrated rate law, ostwald isolation method to determine order 40 Minutes
09 Monitoring of first order reaction using pressure measurement 30 Minutes
10 Monitoring of first order reaction using titration and optical rotation 42 Minutes
11 Arrhenius transition state theory 29 Minutes
12 Arrhenius equation 32 Minutes
13 Effect of catalyst on rate constant, temperature coefficient for reaction 39 Minutes
14 Simple and complex reaction, molecularity, rate determining step RDS 29 Minutes
15 Determination of rate if RDS is given , steady state approximation,complexity in first order reaction, parallel first order reactions 48 Minutes
16 Reversible first order reaction 29 Minutes
17 Consecutive first order reaction 19 Minutes

Radioactivity

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Cause of radioactivity belt of stability , comparison between alpha particle, beta particle and gamma rays 15 Minutes
02 Group displacement law soddy fajan rule,, k– electron capture ,first order decay. 28 Minutes
03 Radioactive decay 28 Minutes
04 Carbon dating, Age of rock using U & Pb,Age of rock using U & He 53 Minutes
05 Mass defect ,Binding energy, Binding energy per nucleon. Nuclear fission and fusion. 51 Minutes

 

Surface chemistry

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Adsorption, Adsorbate, Adsorbent, Thermodynamics of Adsorption, Adsorption v/s Absorption, Physical Adsorption. 47 Minutes
02 Freundlich & Langmuir isotherm, catalytic action of Homogeneous catalyst & Heterogeneous catalyst, Positive & negative catalyst, Homogeneous catalyst, Promoters, Catalytic poison, zeolites, enzyme catalyst, Types of solution, Dispersed phase & Dispersion medium. 48 Minutes
03 Types of colloidal solution, Lyophobic, Lyophilic, macromolecular, micromolecular, Associated colloid/ micelle, cleansing action of soap, Bredig’s arc method,Peptization 43 Minutes
04 Chemical method to prepare colloidal solution, Tyndall effect, Brownian motion, Electrophoresis, coagulation, protection of colloid. 53 Minutes
05 Gold number, Helmholtz double layer theory ,emulsion. 22 Minutes

 

Electrochemistry

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Electrochemical cell, Oxidation half cell, Reduction half cell, Galvanic cell 1 hr 05 Minutes
02 Salt bridge, Daniel cell net cell reaction reaction Quotient cell representation relation between DG & E properties of DG & E,nernst equation 44 Minutes
03 Spontaneity of reaction in cell, nernst equation cell at equilibrium, concentration cell. Hydrogen electrode and standard hydrogen electrode 44 Minutes
045 Metal + insoluble salt + soluble anion type half cell
            Eg.   Ag + AgCl + Cl–
1 hr 15 Minutes
05 Calomel electrode, electrochemical series, thermodynamics for electrochemical cell, 𝝙G, 𝝙H, 𝝙S 59 Minutes
06 Electrolysis & electrolytic cell, electrolysis of nacl, nabr, H2SO4,H2O, first law of electrolysis Faraday law 1 hr 11 Minutes
07 Examples of first law of faraday, second law of faraday 51 Minutes
08 Primary cell ,leclanche cell, secondary cell, lead storage battery , Ni-Cd cell , H2-O2 fuel cell, electrolytic conduction 50 Minutes
09 Molar conductivity, equivalent conductivity , relation between molar cond. And equv. Cond., kohlrausch law, calculation of molar cond using wheatstone bridge , relation between molar cond. And concentration for weak electrolyte and strong electrolyte ,huckel onsager equation 54 Minutes
10 Ionic mobility, conductometric titration for strong acid V/s strong base , strong acid v/s weak base and other examples 51 Minutes

 

STRUCTURAL ISOMERISM

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Definition of isomerism, Classification of isomerism, Chain isomerism, Positional isomerism 45 Minutes
02 Functional isomerism, Ring-chain isomerism,  Metamerism 40 Minutes

 

STEREOISOMERISM

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Introduction, Classification of stereoisomerism, Geometrical Isomerism (G.I.)  20 Minutes
02

G.I. in C=C system , G.I. in Ring system , G.I. due to double bond inside the ring , Cummulenes

55 Minutes
03 G.I. in C=N system,  E/Z Nomenclature 55 Minutes
04 Number of geometrical Isomers, Cummulenes, Spiranes, Cycloalkylidenes, Diphenyl system, Physical properties of geometrical isomers 58 Minutes
05  Optical Isomerism , Plane polarised light , Chiral centre , Chirality ' Assymmetric molecules , Dissymmetric molecules , Plane of symmetry (POS), Centre of symmetry (COS) 1 Hr 09 Minutes
06  POS, COS. Chirality, Optical activity 55 Minutes
07 Wedge-Dash projection fromula , Fischer–Projection formula , Absolute configuration (R/S-configuration) , CIP-Rule 52 Minutes
08 Enantiomers , Diastereomers , Axis of symmetry (AOS)  
09 Erythro enantiomers, Threo enatiomers, D/L- Configuration (Relative configuration) , Number of stereoisomers , Pseudo chiral carbon (PCC), Racemic mixture (or, R/S-mixture) , Polarimeter , Functioning of polarimeter , Percentage enantiomeric excess (%EE), Optical purity 58 Minutes
10 Optical Resolution , Tertiary amine optical activity , Optical activity in absence of chiral centre , Cummulenes , Spiranes , Cycloalkylidene, Diphenyls , Alternating axis of symmetry (AAOS) , Conformational Isomerism Minutes
11 Conformational isomers , Newmann projection formula , Dihedral angle (DHA) , Tortional strain (T.S.) , Vander waals strain (V.S.) , Angle strain (A.S.) , Definition of conformational isomers, Conformational analysis , Sawhorse projection formula 57 Minutes
12 Conversion of Fischer to  Newmann, Conformational analysis of cyclohexane , Energy profile 51 Minutes
13 Conformational analysis of dimethyl cyclohexane 15 Minutes

 

STRUCTURAL INDENTIFICATION & POC

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Structural Identification,  Degree of unsaturation (DU),  Catalytic hydrogenation H2/cat,  Monochlorination Cl2/hn 29 Minutes
02 Structural Identification , Monochlorination Cl2/hv , Ozonolysis  , Reductive ozonalysis , Oxidation ozonalysis , Practical organic chemistry (POC), POC-I , Lassaigne’s test, Elemental analysis 54 Minutes
03 Elemental anlaysis , Test of unsaturation, Test of terminal alkyne , Test of alcohols , Test of carbonyl compounds , Tests of aldehydes 35 Minutes
04 Iodoform Test, Sodium metal test 19 Minutes
05 Sodiumbicarbonate test (NaHCO3), Test of phenols and enols , Test of nitro compounds , Test of amines , Hinseberg’s test , POC-II 33 Minutes

GENERAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (GOC)

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Electornic effect , Inductive effect    36 Minutes
02 Applications of  I-Effect  , Resonance , Conjugated system   47 Minutes
03 When double bond is in conjugation with vacant -p , When double bond is in conjugation with fully filled -p 28 Minutes
04 When double bond is in conjugation with fully filled -p, When double bond is in conjugation with half filled-p , When +ve charge and lone pair are adjacent , d-orbital resonance , Conditions of Resonance, Mesomeric effect (M) 53 Minutes
05 Stability of resonating structures (R.S), Steric Inhibition of Resonance (SIR) , Equivalent R.S. 35 Minutes
06 Equivalent R.S. , Hyperconjugation HC , Hyperconjugation in carbocations , Hyperconjugation in Alkenes , Heat of hydrogenation (HOH) 54 Minutes
07 Hyperconjugation in Toluene, Hyperconjugation in Free Radicals, Electromeric effect (E), Applications of electronic effects , Dipole moment, Bond length , Aromaticity , Benzenoids and Non-benzenoids 38 Minutes
08 Examples of aromatic compounds , Heterocyclic aromatic compounds 27 Minutes
09 M.O. Diagram, Polycyclic aromatic compounds 24 Minutes
10 Examples of aromatic  systems, [n] Annulenes , NMR- definition of Aromaticity , Resonance energy (RE) 37 Minutes
11 Acidic strength of acids , Acidic strength of dicarboxylic acids 44 Minutes
12 Aromatic acids , Ortho effect, Acidic strength of phenols , Feasibility of reactions , Sodium bicarbonate test of acids 52 Minutes
13 Basic strength , Organic Nitrogenous bases. 12 Minutes
14 Basic strngth of Aliphatiec amines , Aromatic amines 43 Minutes
15 Basic strength of Amidines , Basic strength of Guanidines,  Proton sponges,  Site of protonation , Feasibility of Reaction 31 Minutes
16 Carbanions (C-), Reactions in which carbanions are formed , Organometallic compounds, Active methylene group., Tautomerism, Types of Tautomerism 38 Minutes
17 Enolisable –H, Keto-enol Tautomerism, Mechanism of keto-enol Tautomerism 23 Minutes
18 Stability of enol (Percentage enol-content), Racemisation due to enolisation 43 Minutes
19 D-Excharge , Tautomerism in phenols , Ring-chain Tautomerism , Unsymmetrical alpha-hydroxy ketones  37 Minutes

IUPAC NOMENCLATURE

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Basic organic chemistry, Definition of organic compound , Representation of organic compound , Hybridisation  12 Minutes
02 Number of Sigma and PI  bonds , Degree of carbon , Degree of hydrogen , Degree of Alkyl halides, Degree of Alcohols ,  Degree of Amines , Degree of unsaturation (DU) , Calculation of DU , Fundamental definition of DU, Homologous series (H.S.) 46 Minutes
03 Classification of organic compound , Aromatic compounds , Homocyclic compounds , Heterocyclic compounds , IUPAC- Nomenclature , Scheme of IUPAC, Naming of Alkanes 38 Minutes
04 Scheme of IUPAC, Naming of alkanes , Retained Names , Naming of alkenes 59 Minutes
05 Naming of Alkene, Naming of Alkynes , Naming of cycloalkanes 33 Minutes
06 Naming of cycloalkenes , Alkylidenes , Naming of cycloalkynes , Naming of Bicyclo compounds 42 Minutes
07 Functional Groups (F.G.), Naming of carboxylic acids, Special Name of carboxylic acids , Naming of dicarboxylic acids 33 Minutes
08 Naming of sulphonic acid , Naming of Alcohols , Naming of Amines , Naming of thioalcohols, Naming of Aldehydes , Special name of Aldehydes 49 Minutes
09 Naming of Ketones , Naming of cyanides , Special name of cyanides , Naming of isocyanides , Naming of Amides , Special name of amides , Naming of acid halides 46 Minutes
10 naming of acid halide, naming of acid anhydride, naming of esters, special name of ester 41 Minutes
11 Naming of haloalkanes , Naming of Nitro compounds , Naming of Nitroso compounds , Naming of Aromatic compound , Benzene , Other aromatic compound 38 Minutes

 

REACTION MECHANISM

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Carbocations C+, Hybridisation of carbocations , Stability of carbocations , Rearrangement of carbocations , Type of shifts , Migratory aptitude 36 Minutes
02 Migratory aptitude of aromatic group , Rearrangement in cyclic carbocations , Ring expansion (RE),  Ring contracting (RC) , Cyclopropyl methyl carbocations (CPM–C+), Stability order of carbocations , Some extra ordinary stable carbocations, CPM carbocation , Aromatic carbocations 42 Minutes
03 Rearrangement of carbocation,  Reaction mechanism , Solvents , Polar protic solvents (PPS),  Polar aprotic solvents (PAs) , Reagents , Nucleophiles, Nu,  Electrophilic E+ 35 Minutes
04 Electrophiles, E+,  Nucleophiles, Nu,  Nucleophilicity , Experimental order of Nu,  Strong Nu with weak basic character , Strong Nu with strong basic character,  Weak Nu with weak basic character , Solvation of Nu 47 Minutes
05 Leaving group (l.g.), Leaving group ability , Unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction of first order (for R–X) i.e SN1 of R–X , Kinetics of SN1, Stereo of SN1, PE- diagram of SN1, SN1 with rearrangement in C+, Rate of SN1 reaction 36 Minutes
06 SN1 or R–X,  Solvolysis reaction , Factors affecting the rate of SN1 reactions , SN1 of alcohol R–OH 50 Minutes
07 SN1 of R–OH, Lucas reaction , SN1 of ethers , Hydrolysis of ethers , SN2 reaction of (R–X), Kinetics of SN2 reaction , Stereochemistry of SN2 Rxn , PE-diagram of SN2 Rxn 43 Minutes
08 Walden's experiment , Walden Inversion , Factors affecting the rate of SN2 Rxn , Halogen exchange reaction , Finkelstien reaction , Swart's reaction , SN2 Rxn  of alcohol (R–OH), SNi reaction of alcohol with SOCl2 48 Minutes
09 SN2 of ether , Reaction of epoxides , Williamson's ether synthesis 29 Minutes
10 Intramolecular SN2 reactions , Neighbouring group participation (NGP) , Comparison between SN1 and SN2 , SN1 Vs SN2 41 Minutes
11 Elimination Reaction , E1 elimination (of R–X), Saytzeff's rule , Regioselectivity , E1 of Alcohols, Acid catalysed dehydroation of alcohol, Dienone- Phenol rearrangement ,  Pinacol - Pinacolone rearrangement , Semipinacol- Pinacolone rearrangement 51 Minutes
12 E2 Rxn of (R–X), Stereoselectivity and sterospecificity , Reagents of E–2 Reaction , Order of Rate of E–2, Major Hofmann Alkene 37 Minutes
13 Summary of SN1/ SN2/E1/E2, Stereo selectivity of E–2 reaction , E1CB reaction , Cases when Hofmann Alkene is the major product 40 Minutes
14 Tetraalkyl ammonium hydroxide , E–2 Rxn, Didehalogenation , Stereoselectivity , Isotope effect (KH/KD) 24 Minutes

 

GRIGNARD REAGENT,ALKANE,REDUCTION

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Organometallic compounds , Preparation of G.R.    12 Minutes
02 Preparation of GR, Solvents of GR, Reaction of GR, Acid-base reaction of GR, Zerewitinoff's active hydrogen determination 33 Minutes
03 Nucleophilic addition reaction of GR, SN2- Th reaction of GR 30 Minutes
04 Unstable GR, Mono GR is not possible with dihalide , Reaction of GR with CO2, Reaction of GR with O2, Reaction of GR with RCN, Digrignard reagent , Reactions of digrignard reagent 40 Minutes
05 Attack of GR on weak bond, 1,2-addtion & 1,4-additon , Reaction of GR with metal halides , REDUCTION , Definition of reduction , Table of reducing agents , Catalytic hydrogenation 42 Minutes
06 Catalylic hydrogenation , Stereoselectivity ,) Partial hydrogenation , Lindlar's catalyst , P-2 catalyst (Nickle Boride), Birch reduction 44 Minutes
07 Hydroboration Reduction (HBR), Transfer Hydrogenation, Clemmensen reduction , Wolf-Kishner reduction, Lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) 54 Minutes
08 Sodiumboro hydride (NaBH4) (SBH), Triphenyltin hydride Ph3SnH (TPH), DiBAl-H- Diisobutyl Aluminium hydride , Red –P + HI, Mozingo reduction , MPV- reduction , Oppeneaus Oxidation  , Bauvealt-Blanc reduction , ALKANES, Free Radicals , Formation of free radicals , F.R. Catalyst/ Initiators / Promotors , F.R. Inhibitors/ Scavangers/Poisons , Stability of free radicals , Reactions of free radicals , Combination Reactions , Disproportionation reaction 53 Minutes
09 Reactions of Free radicals , Stability of free radicals , Preparation of Alkanes , Wurtz Reaction (WR), Wurtz-Fitting reaction , Fitting reaction , Frankland reaction , Kolbe's Electrolytic synthesis (KES), Corey-House Reaction 41 Minutes
10 Corey House reaction, Decarboxylation , Decarboxylation by soda lime , Decarboxylation by heating 40 Minutes
11 Properties of Alkanes , Chemical properties of Alkanes , Free Radical substitution reaction , PE-diagrams , Reactivity order , Conditions of halogenation 25 Minutes
12 reactivity and selectivity , Percentage yield , Quantum yield , Isomerisation reaction of alkanes , Aromatisation reaction of alkanes , Petroleum , Physical Properties of alkanes 39 Minutes

 

ALKENE,ALKYNE,OXIDATION

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Alkenes , Preparation of Alkene , Pyrolysis of ester , Pyrolysis of xanthates (Chaugave reaction ) , Cope reaction , Didehalogenations 37 Minutes
02 Chemical reactions of Alkenes , Electrophilic addition reaction (AE Rxn), Classical carbocation mechanism , Non-Classical carbocation mechanism , Markowni Koff's rule , Addition of H–X, Antimarkowni Koff's rule 52 Minutes
03 Addition of H2O on Alkenes , Acid-catalysed hydration of Alkenes , Oxymercuration- Demercuration reaction  (OM/DM), Hydroboration -oxidation (HBO), Alkoxymercuration Demercuration , Addition of X2 on Alkenes 47 Minutes
04 Addition of HOX on alkenes , Stereoselectivity , Order of rate of addition of X2 on alkene , Chemical reaction of Alkynes , Addition of H-X on alkynes , Addition of H2O on alkynes , Hydration of alkyne with dil H2SO4 and HgSO4, Hydroboration – Oxidation 48 Minutes
05 Addition of HOX on alkynes , Preparation of alkynes , Isomerisation  24 Minutes
06 Isomerisation mechanism , Reaction of terminal alkynes , Dienes , Conjugated diene , Addition NOCl on alkene , Allylic substitution , NBS- N-bromosuccinimide 35 Minutes
07 Reaction of NBS, MnO2- Oxidising agent , Carbenes , Sources of carbenes  , Types of carbenes 21 Minutes
08 Reaction of carbene , Reimmer-Tiemann reaction , Carbyl amine reaction , OXIDATION , definition of oxidation  , Oxidation of alkenes and alkynes , Ozonolysis of Alkenes and alkynes , Oxidation of Ketone , Perhydroxylation of Alkenes (Formation of diols), Baiyer reaction – Baeyer's reagent , Osmium tetraoxide (OsO4), Epoxidation by per acid 49 Minutes
09 Oxidation-strong oxidising agent , Potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7/H2SO4, Alkaline KMnO4/ OH-, H2CrO4 or CrO3 + H2O, Table of oxidising agents , Oxidation of alcohols , Mild oxidising agents , Oxidation of periodic acid HIO4, Oxidation of aldehydes , Oxidation with NBS, Tollen's reagent , Fehling's Reagent , Benedict's solution , Schiff's reagent 38 Minutes
10 Oxidation of seleniumdioxide SeO2, Side-Chain oxidation 13 Minutes

 

AROMATIC COMPOUND

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Aromaticity , Benzenoids and Non-Benzenoids , NMR-definition of Aromaticity  , Anti Aromaticity , Polycyclic aromatic compound , Azulenes , Reaction of AgNO3 and Na-metal , (n)-Annulenes , Peripheral aromaticity 44 Minutes
02 Electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction , Halogenation of Benzene , Baltz-Schiemann reaction , Nitration of benzene , Kinetic Isotope effect , Sulphonation of benzene , Friedel-Craft reaction (F.C. Rxn), F.C. Alkylation 49 Minutes
03 Ring-Closure at C-1 and C–2, Dehydrogenation , Limitations of F.C. reaction , Friedel Craft Acylation , Ring closure , Directive influence or Directive effect , Table of activating and deactivating groups 44 Minutes
04 Ortho-para ratio , Direction effect on disubstituted benzene , Directive influence in monosubstituted benzene , Directive influence in naphthalene , Directive influence in diphenyl , Directive influence in Anthracene and phenanthrene, Directive influence in pyridine & pyrrole , SN2 Ar reaction , PHENOL, Preparation of phenol 37 Minutes
05 Preparation of phenol from acid hydrolysis of cumene , Chemical reaction of phenol , Halogenation of phenol , Protection of –OH group, Nitration of Phenol , Sulphonation of Phenol, Reimer-Tiemann Reaction , Reimer-Tiemann formylation , Reimer-Tiemann carboxylation , Comparison of Reimer-Tiemann and carbyl amine reactions , Kolbe-Schmidt reaction , Some medicinally important compounds , Aspirine, Salol, Oil of winter green  39 Minutes
06 Nitrosation of phenol , Use of phenol as nucleophile, ANILINE, Preparation of aniline from reduction of nitrobenzene , Selective reduction , Chemical reactions of aniline , Halogenation of Aniline , Nitration of Aniline, Sulphonation of Aniline 26 Minutes
07 Fries rearrangment reaction in Phenol , Claisen rearrangement , Diazotisation of Aniline , Reaction of Benzene diazonium chloride (BDC) , Sandmeyer reaction , Baltz-scheimann reaction , Experimental evidence of formation of phenyl cation , Amination – Deamination 43 Minutes
08 AMINES, Preparation of Amines , Hofmann Bromamide reaction , Hofmann methylation , Gabriel phthalimide reaction , Coupling reaction of BDC 32 Minutes
09 Test of Amines ,Isocyanide Test of 1º Amine , Test with nitrous acid HNO2, CYANIDES and ISOCYANIDES , Preparation of cyanides and isocyamide , Hydrolysis of cyanides and isocyanides , IPSO-Substitution 23 Minutes
10 Basic Strength, Definition of bases  , Scales of basic strength , Organic Nitrogenous bases 12 Minutes
11 Basic strength of Aliphatic amines , Basic strength of Aromatic amines , SH of H2O, SIR effect on Aromatic amines , Basic strength of pyridine and pyarole 43 Minutes
12 Amidine-basic strength , Guanidine- basic strength , Kb order , Proton sponges , Site of protonation , Feasibility of reaction 31 Minutes

 

CARBONYL COMPOUND

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Preparation of aldehydes & Ketones , Dehydrogenation , Hydrolysis of gem. dihalide , From dry distillation of Col. salt of fatty acid , From acid chloride (Rossenmund's) , Formylation of benzene (Gattermann Koch Ald. Synthesis) , Chemical reaction of carbonyl compound , Nucleophilic addition reaction , Addition of H2O (Formation of hydrates) 41 Minutes
02 Addition of R–OH (Formation acetal/Ketal), Addition of G.R., Addition of HCN (Formation of cyanohydrin), Addition of NH3, Addition of Ammonia derivative 35 Minutes
03 Addition of NaHSO3 (Sodium bisulphite) , Backmann rearrrangment , Cyclic Ketone 29 Minutes
04 Condensation reaction , Aldol condensation reaction , Cross Aldol , Intramolecular Aldol reaction 40 Minutes
05 Perkin condensation reaction , Classen Ester condenstion , Cross-Claisen , Intramolecular claisen (Dieckmann's reaction ) , knoevenagel reaction 22 Minutes
06 Reformatsky reaction , Favorskii reaction , Cannizaro reaction 23 Minutes
07 Cross Aldol , Cross Cannizaro , Intramolecular cannizaro , Tischenko reaction , Alpha-Halogenation , Haloform reaction , Iodoform test 44 Minutes
08 Baeyer - Villiger Oxidation , Benzil - Benzilic acid Rearrangement , D-exchange reaction , Witting reaction , Benzoin condensation  33 Minutes

 

CARBOXYLIC ACID & DERRIVATIVES

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Carboxylic acid preparation , Arndt-Eistert reaction (Homologation of acid), Chemical reactions of carboxylic acids , Hunsdiecker reaction 18 Minutes
02 Decarboxylication reaction , Decarboxylation of acids by soda lime (SL), Decarboxylation by heating , Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky (HVZ) reaction , Acid derivatives , Preparation of acid derivatives , SN2 Th reaction , Esters- preparation , Type-I mechanism of esterification, Type-II mechanism of esterification 44 Minutes
03 Examples of esterification, Hydrolysis of ester , Acid hydrolysis of ester and saponification , Acid amide , Hofmann Bromamide reaction , Curtius reaction , Schmidt reaction , Lossen reaction 28 Minutes

 

BIOMOLECULES & POLYMER

Lecture# Description Duration
01 Carbohydrates , definition , Classification of carbohydrates , Based on number of units , Based on water solubility , Based on reducing properties 18 Minutes
02 Monosaccharides - Aldoses and Ketoses, D/L-configuration (Relative configuration) , Glucose , Cyclic hemiacetal structure of glucose , ANOMERS , EPIMERS , Haworth structure of glucose- glucopyranose structure, Formation of methyl-O-glucoside , Mutarotation, FRUTOSE , cyclic hemiacetal structure of fructose , Haworth structure of fructose- Fructofuranose structure   47 Minutes
03 SUCROSE, Inversion of sugar , Glycosidic linkage , Maltose ,Lactose , Starch , Amylose and amylopectin , Cellulose , Reaction of carbohydrates , Osazone formation of glucose and fructose 45 Minutes
04 Amino acids , Types of Alpha-Amino acids (AA), Neutral Alpha-AA, Acidic Alpha-AA, Basic Alpha-AA, Zwitter ion , Iso-electric point (pI), Calculation of pI value 21 Minutes
05 Peptides , Dipeptides , Peptide link, Polypeptides , Protein , Examples of Amino acids 18 Minutes
06 Polymerisation , Classification of polymer , Based on source , Base on Intermolecular force of attraction , Elastromers , Fibres , Thermoplastics, Thermosettings , Polyethylene , Nylon-6, Nylon-6,6, Natural Rubber , Synthetic Rubber- Neoprene , Buna-S, Buna-N , Dacron , Low density polyethylene (LDPE) 33 Minutes
07 High density polyethylene (HDPE) , Polypropylene , Poly isobutylene , Poly vinyl chloride (PVC), Poly tetrafluoro ethylene (PTFEW Tefflon) , Poly acrylonitrile (PAN or orlon), Poly styrene , Poly methyl methanacrylate (PMMA or Lucite)  or (Plexiglas or prespex), Natural Rubber- Polyisoprene , Gutta-percha, Vinylidene chloride- Vinyl chloride polymer , Lexan-Poly carbonate , Glyptal , Bakelite (or phenol- formaldehyde Resin), Melamine- formaldehyde (Melmac) , Polyurethane 33 Minutes

 

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